The Human Truth Foundation

Jamaica

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #homosexuality #intelligence #jamaica #morals #the_environment

Jamaica
StatusIndependent State
CapitalKingston
Land Area 10 830km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, Caribbean
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population2.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.82yrs (2017)3
GNI$8 350 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesJM, JAM, 3885
Internet Domain.jm6
CurrencyDollar (JMD)7
Telephone+8

1. Overview

#jamaica #spain

The island - discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early in the 16th century. The native Taino, who had inhabited Jamaica for centuries, were gradually exterminated and replaced by African slaves. England seized the island in 1655 and established a plantation economy based on sugar, cocoa, and coffee. The abolition of slavery in 1834 freed a quarter million slaves, many of whom became small farmers. Jamaica gradually increased its independence from Britain. In 1958 it joined other British Caribbean colonies in forming the Federation of the West Indies. Jamaica gained full independence when it withdrew from the Federation in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated with the major political parties evolved into powerful organized crime networks involved in international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime, drug trafficking, and poverty pose significant challenges to the government today. Nonetheless, many rural and resort areas remain relatively safe and contribute substantially to the economy.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverJamaica is a powerfully beautiful country, packed with extremes: experience flat beaches twinned to green mountains, electrifying Kingston and relaxed resorts, sweet reggae and slack dancehall. Jamaica, at first blush, is the Caribbean island many know best thanks to its relentless exposure – its music, dreadlocks, dancehall and beaches.

But did you know there are Chinese Jamaicans and Jewish Jamaicans and white Jamaicans who speak patois as fluently as downtown Kingston yardies? Jamaica, perhaps more than any other Caribbean nation, also keeps one foot rooted in Africa. From the evolution of African folk music into reggae, or the shifting of African spice rubs into delicious jerk, it´s rewarding to see how the Jamaican cultural story retains its original voice whilst adapting it to the setting – and of course, rhythms – of the Caribbean.

Understand the above and you can better appreciate the good, red Jamaican soil; the respect Jamaicans have for life and nature; and the meaning `One Love´ has in a place like the Kingston ghettoes. To know Jamaica, experience it. As locals say, `Rock-stone a river naah know sun hot´. That´s patois for `experience brings knowledge,´ and so much more so on an island that can express such simple proverbs so beautifully.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Jamaica National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
91Fiji91
92St Lucia92
93Mongolia92
94Jamaica94
95Colombia95
96Dominica96
97Suriname97
98Tunisia97
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
59Turkey57.5
60Mexico57.4
61Uzbekistan57.3
62Jamaica57.2
63Fiji57.2
64Macedonia57.0
65Bosnia & Herzegovina57.0
66Moldova57.0
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Jamaica #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
119St Lucia19.9
120Brazil19.9
121Argentina20.3
122Jamaica21.0
123Lebanon21.1
124Trinidad & Tobago21.9
125Bahamas22.4
126Costa Rica22.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
14Palau38.8
15St Vincent & Grenadines37.7
16Cape Verde37.6
17Jamaica36.1
18Armenia28.2
19Trinidad & Tobago26.7
20Malta26.2
21Georgia25.1
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
41Armenia1.74
42Kuwait2.27
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
146Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.2
147Guinea-Bissau1.2
148Korea, S.1.1
149Jamaica1.1
150Equatorial Guinea1.1
151Maldives1.0
152Cameroon1.0
153Tonga0.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
57Ecuador76.12
58China75.96
59Vietnam75.94
60Jamaica75.82
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
64Macedonia75.53
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
136Oman2.9m
137Kuwait2.9m
138Mongolia2.8m
139Jamaica2.8m
140Namibia2.4m
141Latvia2.2m
142Lesotho2.2m
143Macedonia2.1m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Jamaica's population is predicted to rise to 2.842 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.28. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Jamaica #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
20Nigeria16
21Iceland16
22Uganda16
23Jamaica18
24India20
25Ireland20
26Italy20
27China20
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
78Serbia40.8
79Tunisia40.2
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
82Burkina Faso38.8
83China38.4
84El Salvador38.0
85Suriname38.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
112Jamaica2.22
113Benin2.23
114Armenia2.24
115Niger2.24
116Turkmenistan2.24
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
112Dominican Rep.14
113Kenya14
114Japan14
115Jamaica14
116Jordan14
117China14
118Mauritius14
119Botswana14
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
57Suriname55
58El Salvador58
59Ghana59
60Jamaica60
61Haiti61
62Fiji61
63Dominican Rep.63
64Cambodia64
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
10Sweden923
11Estonia926
12Austria940
13Jamaica988
14Switzerland994
15Ireland1006
16Czechia1017
17Germany1024
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
49Portugal0.25
50Peru0.26
51Guyana0.26
52Jamaica0.26
53Mexico0.27
54Colombia0.27
55Algeria0.27
56Barbados0.27
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #Jamaica #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
90S. Africa0.39
91Kyrgyzstan0.39
92Brazil0.41
93Jamaica0.42
94Algeria0.43
95Botswana0.44
96Philippines0.44
97Samoa0.44
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
47Bulgaria1944
48France1944
49Bermuda1944
50Jamaica1944
51Slovenia1945
52Croatia1945
53Italy1945
54Senegal1945
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Jamaica has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
62Lebanon3
63Congo, (Brazzaville)3
64Poland3
65Jamaica3
66India3
67Angola2
68Chile2
69Central African Rep.2
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian77.2%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion4.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated17.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Protestant 62.5% (Seventh-Day Adventist 10.8%, Pentecostal 9.5%, Other Church of God 8.3%, Baptist 7.2%, New Testament Church of God 6.3%, Church of God in Jamaica 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.3%, Anglican 3.6%, other Christian 7.7%), Roman Catholic 2.6%, other or unspecified 14.2%, none 20.9%, (2001 census)38.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Jamaica #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
111Belize45%
112Ukraine44%
113Philippines44%
114Jamaica43%
115Ecuador43%
116Thailand43%
117Mauritius43%
118Cape Verde43%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)40
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio40
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
169Cuba0.0
170St Vincent & Grenadines0.0
171Montenegro0.0
172Libya0.0
173Jamaica0.0
174Fiji0.0
175Jordan0.0
176Barbados0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Jamaica #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
120Paraguay57.4
121Ethiopia58.4
122Palestine58.6
123Jamaica59.7
124Azerbaijan59.8
125Yemen61.5
126Philippines61.7
127Mexico62.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)41
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita41
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
77Uzbekistan4.6
78Liberia4.7
79Ghana4.8
80Jamaica4.9
81Nicaragua5.0
82Cuba5.2
83Armenia5.3
84Costa Rica5.4
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
144Marshall Islands144
145Botswana145
146Samoa146
147Jamaica147
148Togo148
149Tonga149
150Nigeria150
151St Lucia151
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)43
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %43
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
114Moldova91.5
115Iceland91.5
116Trinidad & Tobago91.4
117Jamaica90.9
118Burkina Faso90.6
119Nepal90.1
120Montenegro89.9
121Zimbabwe89.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
93Oman 577
94Malaysia 584
95Seychelles 590
96Jamaica 593
97Korea, N. 610
98Fiji 618
99Cambodia 645
100Equatorial Guinea 649
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
17Iceland16
18Bhutan17.5
19Kenya17.75
20Jamaica20.5
21Austria21.25
22Kuwait21.5
23Hong Kong21.5
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
74Chile74
75Argentina75
76Costa Rica76
77Jamaica77
78Colombia78
79Liberia79
80Kyrgyzstan80
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
83Guatemala83
84Cape Verde84
85Morocco85
86Jamaica86
87Senegal87
88Indonesia88
89Cambodia89
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
71Spain71
72USA72
73Cyprus73
74Jamaica74
75Guyana75
76Fiji76
77Iceland77
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
83Sierra Leone83
84Israel84
85Tanzania85
86Jamaica86
87Nicaragua87
88Niger88
89India89
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
143Tanzania143
144St Vincent & Grenadines144
145Samoa145
146Jamaica146
147Syria147
148Iran148
149India149
q=163.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
107Namibia$9 770
108Georgia$8 856
109Philippines$8 395
110Jamaica$8 350
111Fiji$8 245
112Armenia$8 189
113Paraguay$8 182
114El Salvador$7 732
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
75Malaysia59.2
76Antigua & Barbuda59.2
77UAE58.9
78Jamaica58.6
79Namibia58.5
80Iran58.2
81Belize57.8
82Philippines57.7
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
20Nigeria16
21Iceland16
22Uganda16
23Jamaica18
24India20
25Ireland20
26Italy20
27China20
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)47
Pos.Higher is better
Score47
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
126Dominica-5
127Namibia-5
128Kiribati-5
129Jamaica-5
130Cook Islands-5
131Guyana-5
132St Lucia-9
133India-10
q=196.
IQ (2006)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
107Kenya72
108S. Africa72
109Zambia71
110Jamaica71
111Ghana71
112Namibia70
113Togo70
114Botswana70
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/jamaica.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #jamaica #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #spain #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/jm.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Jamaica".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)48.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  40. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  42. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  43. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  44. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  45. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  46. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  47. Sources:^
  48. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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