The Human Truth Foundation

Philippines (Republic of the Philippines)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#philippines

Philippines
Republic of the Philippines
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index82nd best
CapitalManila
Land Area 298 170km21
LocationAsia
Population96.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy68.34yrs (2017)3
GNI$8 395 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesPH, PHL, 6085
Internet Domain.ph6
CurrencyPeso (PHP)7
Telephone+638

1. Overview

#china #japan

The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Her presidency was marred by several corruption allegations but the Philippine economy was one of the few to avoid contraction following the 2008 global financial crisis, expanding each year of her administration. Benigno AQUINO III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups, some of which are on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and ongoing peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People's Army insurgency also operates through much of the country. The Philippines faces increased tension with China over disputed territorial and maritime claims in the South China Sea.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThe Philippines is defined by its emerald rice fields, teeming megacities, graffiti-splashed jeepneys, smouldering volcanoes, fuzzy water buffaloes and smiling, happy-go-lucky people. Just when you thought you had Asia figured out, you get to the Philippines. Instead of monks you have priests; instead of túk-túk you have tricycles; instead of pho you have adobo. At first glance the Philippines will disarm you more than charm you, but peel back the country´s skin and there are treasures to be found aplenty. For starters, you can swim with whale sharks, scale volcanoes, explore desert islands, gawk at ancient emerald-green rice terraces, submerge at world-class dive sites and venture into rainforests to visit remote hill tribes.Beyond its obvious physical assets, the Philippines possesses a quirky streak that takes a bit longer to appreciate. There are secret potions and healing lotions, guys named Bong and girls named Bing, grinning hustlers, deafening cock farms, wheezing bangkas (outrigger boats), crooked politicians, fuzzy carabao (water buffalo), graffiti-splashed jeepneys and cheap beer to enjoy as you take it all in.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Philippines National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
113Indonesia113
114Palestine114
115Vietnam115
116Philippines116
117El Salvador117
118Bolivia118
119S. Africa119
120Kyrgyzstan120
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
79Cuba55.6
80Turkey55.6
81Colombia55.5
82Philippines55.5
83Nicaragua55.1
84Kyrgyzstan55.1
85Kuwait55.0
86Vietnam54.7
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
67Haiti09.6
68Vanuatu09.9
69Cape Verde10.0
70Philippines10.3
71Cambodia10.4
72Egypt10.5
73Libya10.5
74S. Africa10.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
116Hungary4.6
117Colombia4.6
118Sierra Leone4.6
119Philippines4.6
120Egypt4.4
121Germany4.3
122Korea, S.4.3
123Belgium4.2
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
119Israel2.91
120Jordan2.93
121Honduras3.02
122Philippines3.06
123Lesotho3.08
124Namibia3.08
125Zimbabwe3.15
126Tajikistan3.19
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
162El Salvador0.7
163Ethiopia0.6
164Romania0.6
165Philippines0.5
166India0.4
167Guatemala0.4
168Mongolia0.4
169Papua New Guinea0.4
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
129Cambodia68.81
130Bolivia68.74
131Timor-Leste (E. Timor)68.51
132Philippines68.34
133India68.32
134Solomon Islands68.11
135Senegal66.93
136Laos66.60
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
9Russia142.7m
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
13Vietnam89.7m
14Ethiopia86.5m
15Egypt84.0m
16Germany82.0m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

The Philippines's population is predicted to rise to 126.32 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 3.06. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

The Roman Catholic Church is the most notable, powerful and active organisation that lobbies against birth-control wherever it can, internationally. Thankfully Most Catholics routinely ignore the Church on this issue, especially in educated and developed countries, but there are still plenty of fast-growing countries where the Catholic Church is still prospering the old-fashioned way. It took the government of the Philippines 13 years to force through legislation to allow government-funded contraception and for sex education in schools because of the strength of the opposition of the Catholic Church there - in a country where 11 women die of pregnancy-related problems every day. The Catholic Church "ferociously" opposed it, warning of moral and social collapse, the destruction of family life, and divine wrath, if it was passed. The bill is considered "a major step toward reducing maternal deaths and promoting family planning in the impoverished country, which has one of Asia's fastest-growing populations. [...] The United Nations said early this year that the bill would help reduce an alarming number of pregnancy-related deaths, prevent life-threatening abortions and slow the spread of AIDS"18.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better19
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
93Jamaica0.42
94Algeria0.43
95Botswana0.44
96Philippines0.44
97Samoa0.44
98Bolivia0.45
99Suriname0.45
100Panama0.46
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year20
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
41Brazil1934
42Cuba1934
43Myanmar (Burma)1935
44Philippines1937
45Uzbekistan1938
46Dominican Rep.1942
47Bulgaria1944
48France1944
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Philippines has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%21
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
98Cameroon96
99Malaysia96
100Afghanistan97
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better22
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
123Saudi Arabia0
124Rwanda0
125Cameroon0
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
128Madagascar0
129Nigeria0
130Malawi0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below23:

Christian92.6%
Muslim5.5%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%), Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)24.

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
25
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
26
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
110Kenya45%
111Belize45%
112Ukraine44%
113Philippines44%
114Jamaica43%
115Ecuador43%
116Thailand43%
117Mauritius43%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio27
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
79Serbia0.1
80Liechtenstein0.0
81Cyprus0.0
82Philippines0.0
83Macedonia0.0
84Pakistan0.0
85Paraguay0.0
86Chile0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
28
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
7Colombia0.22
8S. Africa0.22
9Japan0.22
10Philippines0.24
11Czech Rep.0.24
12Argentina0.27
13Hungary0.27
14Peru0.30
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100019
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
123Jamaica59.7
124Azerbaijan59.8
125Yemen61.5
126Philippines61.7
127Mexico62.8
128Argentina63.8
129Laos64.1
130Honduras65.0
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita29
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
83Armenia5.3
84Costa Rica5.4
85Antigua & Barbuda5.4
86Philippines5.4
87Puerto Rico5.4
88Cambodia5.5
89Seychelles5.6
90Zimbabwe5.7
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
161San Marino79.3
162Gabon78.7
163Micronesia78.2
164Philippines77.9
165Sweden77.8
166Ivory Coast76.9
167Congo, DR76.5
168Timor-Leste (E. Timor)76.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
31
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
135Iraq1 227
136Spain1 265
137Malta1 266
138Philippines1 291
139Indonesia1 322
140Libya1 333
141Israel1 346
142Argentina1 359
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties32
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
66Lithuania18
67Moldova18
68Kyrgyzstan18
69Philippines18
70Algeria18
71Malta18
72Tunisia18
73Niger18
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank33
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
98Kyrgyzstan98
99Tanzania99
100Uganda100
101Philippines101
102Honduras101
103Zambia103
104Mozambique103
105Argentina103
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
34
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
143Bangladesh4201
144Malaysia4273
145Palestine4309
146Philippines4311
147Russia4342
148Singapore4343
149Iraq4467
150Myanmar (Burma)4471
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%35
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
4Netherlands5
5Vietnam6
6UK8
7Denmark9
8USA9
9Tanzania12
10Thailand13
11Czech Rep.13
12Canada14
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
36
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
35Iran32
36Sweden33
37Turkmenistan33.75
38Philippines34.75
39Nigeria35
40Dominican Rep.35.75
41Northern Cyprus37
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
37
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
129Turkey2.34
130Kyrgyzstan2.36
131Azerbaijan2.36
132Philippines2.42
133Ivory Coast2.42
134Mexico2.45
135Lebanon2.46
136Ethiopia2.50
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
105Tajikistan0.12
106Burundi0.12
107Madagascar0.11
108Philippines0.11
109Myanmar (Burma)0.11
110Peru0.10
111Paraguay0.09
112Congo, DR0.08
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
38
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
82Ukraine5.1
83Malawi5.1
84Iraq5.0
85Philippines5.0
86Zambia5.0
87Laos5.0
88Mauritania5.0
89Latvia5.0
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
106St Lucia$9 791
107Namibia$9 770
108Georgia$8 856
109Philippines$8 395
110Jamaica$8 350
111Fiji$8 245
112Armenia$8 189
113Paraguay$8 182
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
39
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
46Canada66.4
47Maldives65.9
48Fiji65.9
49Philippines65.7
50Australia65.7
51Morocco65.6
52Belarus65.4
53Malaysia65.0
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score40
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
91Cape Verde20
92Korea, S.20
93Russia20
94Philippines18
95Cambodia15
96Rwanda15
97Taiwan15
98Fiji15
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better41
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
...
68Turkmenistan87
69Indonesia87
70Kuwait86
71Philippines86
72Peru85
73Trinidad & Tobago85
74Cuba85
75Yemen85
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/philippines.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#buddhism #china #christianity #hinduism #islam #japan #judaism #philippines

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References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Philippines" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. National Secular Society news article "Catholic Church fails to stop Philippines contraception bill" (2012 Dec 18). Accessed 2013 Oct 19. Added to this page 2013 Oct 23.^
  19. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  20. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  21. Gallup (2009) .^
  22. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  23. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  24. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  25. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  26. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  27. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  29. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  30. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  31. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  32. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  33. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  34. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  35. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  36. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  37. ^
  38. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  39. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  40. Higher is better. Sources:^
  41. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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