The Human Truth Foundation

Brazil (Federative Republic of Brazil)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#brazil #charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #pentecostalism #research #science #the_environment

Brazil
Federative Republic of Brazil
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBrasilia
Land Area8 459 420km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population198.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.75yrs (2017)3
GNI$14 145 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBR, BRA, 765
Internet Domain.br6
CurrencyReal (BRL)7
Telephone+558

1. Overview

#portugal

Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader, one of the first in the area to begin an economic recovery. Highly unequal income distribution and crime remain pressing problems.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTropical islands, lush rainforests, marvelous cities and picture-perfect beaches set the scene for the great Brazilian adventure. One of the world´s most captivating places, Brazil is a country of powdery white-sand beaches, verdant rainforests and wild, rhythm-filled metropolises. Brazil´s attractions extend from frozen-in-time colonial towns to otherworldly landscapes of red-rock canyons, thundering waterfalls and coral-fringed tropical islands. Add to that Brazil´s biodiversity: legendary in scope, its diverse ecosystems boast the greatest collection of plant and animal species found on earth. There are countless places where you can spot iconic species in Brazil, including toucans, scarlet macaws, howler monkeys, capybara, pink dolphins and sea turtles.

Brazil offers big adventures for travel. There´s horseback riding and wildlife watching in the Pantanal, kayaking flooded forests in the Amazon, ascending rocky cliff tops to panoramic views, whale watching off the coast, surfing stellar

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Brazil National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
76Lebanon76
77Mexico77
78Azerbaijan78
79Brazil79
80Grenada79
81Bosnia & Herzegovina81
82Macedonia82
83Algeria83
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
54S. Africa59.0
55Bhutan58.6
56UAE58.5
57Brazil58.5
58Albania58.0
59Turkey57.5
60Mexico57.4
61Uzbekistan57.3
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Brazil #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
117St Vincent & Grenadines19.7
118Seychelles19.8
119St Lucia19.9
120Brazil19.9
121Argentina20.3
122Jamaica21.0
123Lebanon21.1
124Trinidad & Tobago21.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
180Namibia0.7
181Ethiopia0.7
182Tanzania0.7
183Brazil0.7
184Saudi Arabia0.7
185Qatar0.7
186Nigeria0.6
187Maldives0.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
31Costa Rica1.81
32Qatar2.20
33Morocco2.20
34Brazil1.80
35Guyana2.21
36Netherlands1.79
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
167Guatemala0.4
168Mongolia0.4
169Papua New Guinea0.4
170Brazil0.4
171Angola0.3
172Haiti0.3
173Vanuatu0.3
174Tunisia0.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
75Armenia74.89
76Romania74.84
77Peru74.81
78Brazil74.75
79Thailand74.62
80Mauritius74.60
81Kuwait74.55
82Saudi Arabia74.44
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
4Indonesia244.8m
5Brazil198.4m
6Pakistan180.0m
7Nigeria166.6m
8Bangladesh152.4m
9Russia142.7m
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Brazil's population is predicted to rise to 220.49 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.80. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#Brazil #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Brazil does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Brazil comes in the top 20 in LGBT equality18, fighting anti-semitic opinions19 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights20. It does better than average in eliminating modern slavery21 and in fighting corruption22. Brazil does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23, its Global Peace Index rating24, opposing gender inequality25 and in supporting press freedom26. Some things are getting worse. Women are already poorly protected and abortion is far too heavily restricted and many women and girls must seek out illegal and unregulated abortion clinics - of the estimated 416,000 abortions in 2015, fewer than 1,700 were legal. In 2016 a congressional committee moved to make things worse by prohibiting abortion under any circumstances27. The police are involved in far too many unlawful killings and the mistreatment of detainees also seems to be getting worse, not better27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Religiosity (2009)28
Pos.Lower is better
%28
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
60Tajikistan85
61Malta86
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
65Ivory Coast88
66Guatemala88
67Zimbabwe88
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)29
Pos.Higher is better29
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
76Colombia1
77Costa Rica1
78Honduras1
79Brazil1
80Ecuador1
81S. Africa1
82Venezuela1
83Peru1
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below30:

Christian88.9%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated7.9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist 1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4% (2000 census)31.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Brazil32. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 28%. Some people don't know what to believe (19%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (6%). Also, 2% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 12% believe in reincarnation.

A Pew Forum poll in 2006 found that nearly half or more of all Protestants in several countries, including Brazil, identified themselves as Pentecostal Christians33. Due to its large population, there are more Catholics here than in any other country.

Freedom of Thought: The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)34, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their short entry for Brazil states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of conscience, religion or belief, which is guaranteed under Article 5 of the constitution. The law provides penalties of up to five years in prison for crimes of religious intolerance and enables courts to fine or imprison for two to five years anyone who displays, distributes, or broadcasts religiously intolerant material. It is illegal to write, edit, publish, or sell literature that promotes religious intolerance.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)35

On a similarly positive note, academics Grim & Finke state that "given that religious freedoms are assured and the government has no formal ties with any one religion, there are few incentives for the government to support violent acts against minority religions [and] violent religious persecution is rare and no single religion can lay claim to the authority or power of the state"36.

Of course in history, Christianity was not so restrained, and Brazil is infamous for the persecution of Jews in the 1600s (causing the first movement of Jews to New York in 165437.

Links:

6. The Internet

#Brazil #internet #it_security #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
13Kenya29
14Georgia30
15Nigeria33
16Korea, S.34
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
61Malaysia69%
62Greenland67%
63Portugal67%
64Brazil66%
65St Kitts & Nevis66%
66Dominica66%
67Italy66%
68Uruguay65%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)40
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio40
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
19Australia14.6
20Trinidad & Tobago14.5
21Finland14.1
22Brazil13.9
23Netherlands10.5
24Czechia10.1
25New Zealand9.7
26Romania8.7
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
49France1.13
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Brazil #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)25
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100025
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
132S. Sudan65.9
133Belize65.9
134Ghana66.8
135Brazil67.0
136Comoros68.3
137Swaziland70.4
138Bolivia70.8
139Nepal71.9
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)42
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita42
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
134Botswana8.4
135Cameroon8.4
136Belize8.5
137Brazil8.7
138Montenegro8.7
139Sierra Leone8.7
140Paraguay8.8
141Venezuela8.9
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
37Thailand37
38Pakistan38
39Portugal39
40Brazil40
41Iceland41
42El Salvador42
43Russia43
44Turkey44
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)44
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %44
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
35Guyana97.0
36Slovakia97.0
37Kyrgyzstan96.7
38Brazil96.7
39Jordan96.6
40Brunei96.6
41Spain96.5
42Poland96.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
79Nicaragua 488
80Angola 489
81Honduras 489
82Brazil 492
83Senegal 504
84Pakistan 511
85Cape Verde 515
86Tajikistan 533
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)46
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k46
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
28Seychelles8.9
29Cyprus9.1
30Uzbekistan9.3
31Brazil9.7
32Colombia9.9
33Panama10.9
34Nicaragua11.6
35Costa Rica12.1
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
98Argentina86.5
99Gabon86.75
100Bangladesh87.5
101Brazil88.5
102Mexico89.5
103India89.75
104Ethiopia90.5
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
106Madagascar106
107Thailand107
108Yemen108
109Brazil109
110Nicaragua110
111Togo111
112Belize112
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
116Ivory Coast116
117Panama117
118Colombia118
119Brazil119
120Honduras120
121Tanzania121
122Zimbabwe122
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
58Romania58
59Vietnam59
60Malawi60
61Brazil61
62Grenada62
63Kenya63
64Denmark64
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
47Japan47
48Czechia48
49Argentina49
50Brazil50
51Dominican Rep.51
52Slovakia52
53UAE53
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
157Bahrain157
158Mauritania158
159Brunei159
160Algeria160
161Papua New Guinea161
162Brazil162
163Equatorial Guinea163
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
29Spain1.22
30Russia1.19
31New Zealand1.17
32Brazil1.15
33Malaysia1.13
34Turkey1.01
35Lithuania0.95
36Poland0.94
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
23Iceland6.9
24Korea, S.6.9
25Mexico6.8
26Brazil6.8
27El Salvador6.7
28Cyprus6.7
29Thailand6.7
30Saudi Arabia6.7
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
75Botswana$14 663
76Thailand$14 519
77Libya$14 303
78Brazil$14 145
79Turkmenistan$14 026
80Costa Rica$14 006
81Palau$13 771
82Algeria$13 533
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
66Egypt61.2
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
69Brazil60.7
70Sri Lanka60.6
71Equatorial Guinea60.4
72Mexico59.7
73Dominica59.4
q=180.
IQ (2006)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
60Laos89
61Ecuador88
62Mexico88
63Brazil87
64Bolivia87
65Iraq87
66Azerbaijan87
67Indonesia87
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Oct 16
http://www.humantruth.info/brazil.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #alcohol #belief #Brazil #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #heaven #hell #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #pentecostalism #politics #population #portugal #religion #research #science #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #universalism #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Oct 16.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

Terence O. Ranger
(2008, Ed.) Evangelical Christianity And Democracy in Africa. Published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Part of the series of books on Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in the Global South (series editor Timothy Samuel Shah).

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Brazil".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Sources:^
  19. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  22. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  23. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  24. ^
  25. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  26. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  27. Human Rights Watch (2018). P87-97.^
  28. Gallup (2009) .^
  29. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)50.^
  30. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  31. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  32. Ipsos (2011) .^
  33. Terence (2008). In the preface written by Timothy Shah.^
  34. IHEU (2012) .^
  35. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  36. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 4 "Case Studies: Japan, Brazil, and Nigeria" digital location 2634,2707.^
  37. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 4 "Case Studies: Japan, Brazil, and Nigeria" digital location 2649.^
  38. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  39. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  40. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  42. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  43. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  44. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  45. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  46. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  47. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  48. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  49. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  50. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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