The Human Truth Foundation

Lesotho (Kingdom of Lesotho)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#economics #homosexuality #lesotho #research #science #the_environment

Lesotho
Kingdom of Lesotho
StatusIndependent State
CapitalMaseru
Land Area 30 360km21
LocationAfrica
Population2.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy50.08yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 319 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesLS, LSO, 4265
Internet Domain.ls6
CurrencyLoti (LSL)7
Telephone+2668

1. Overview

Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. The Basuto National Party ruled the country during its first two decades. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990, but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995 and subsequently succeeded by his son, King LETSIE III, in 1996. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. In 1998, violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Batswana military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community. Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002, but the National Assembly elections of February 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties disputed how the electoral law was applied to award proportional seats in the Assembly. In May 2012, competitive elections involving 18 parites saw Prime Minister Motsoahae Thomas THABANE form a coalition government - the first in the country's history - that ousted the 14-year incumbent, Pakalitha MOSISILI, who peacefully transferred power the following month.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTiny Lesotho is Africa´s `Kingdom in the Sky´, home to traditional Basotho culture where herdboys tend their sheep on steep hillsides and horsemen wrapped in blankets ride mountain passes. Lesotho (Le- soo -too) is a vastly underrated travel destination. It´s beautiful, culturally rich, safe, cheap and easily accessible from Durban and Johannesburg. The hiking and trekking is world class and the national parks´ infrastructure continues to improve.

The 1000m-high `lowlands´ are the scene of low-key Lesotho life, with good craft shopping around Teyateyaneng and Maseru. But be sure to head to the valleys and mountains, where streams traverse an ancient dinosaur playground.

South Africa is just a mountain pass or two away, but Lesotho´s towering peaks and isolated valleys, and the pride of the Basotho in their identity, have served to insulate Lesotho´s culture from that of its larger neighbour. For anyone seeking adventure, wilderness, a laid-back pace and the chance to get acquainted with people living traditional lifestyles, Lesotho is a magical destination.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Lesotho National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
158Madagascar158
159Rwanda159
160Comoros160
161Lesotho160
162Senegal162
163Uganda163
164Haiti163
165Sudan165
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
156Comoros44.8
157Liberia44.7
158Benin44.2
159Lesotho44.2
160Togo44.1
161Cambodia44.1
162Madagascar44.1
163Cameroon43.8
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Lesotho #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
26Iraq06.0
27Guinea06.1
28Guinea-Bissau06.1
29Lesotho06.1
30Kenya06.1
31S. Sudan06.2
32Tanzania06.2
33Sao Tome & Principe06.2
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
26Moldova21.5
27Fiji21.3
28Portugal20.8
29Lesotho20.5
30El Salvador20.5
31Micronesia19.7
32Belarus18.4
33Eritrea18.0
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
120Jordan2.93
121Honduras3.02
122Philippines3.06
123Lesotho3.08
124Namibia3.08
125Zimbabwe3.15
126Tajikistan3.19
127Haiti3.19
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
175Honduras0.3
176Eritrea0.3
177Afghanistan0.3
178Lesotho0.3
179Laos0.3
180Egypt0.3
181Iraq0.3
182Somalia0.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
188Sierra Leone51.32
189Lesotho50.08
190Swaziland48.94
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
139Jamaica2.8m
140Namibia2.4m
141Latvia2.2m
142Lesotho2.2m
143Macedonia2.1m
144Botswana2.1m
145Slovenia2.0m
146Qatar1.9m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Lesotho's population is predicted to rise to 2.566 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 3.08. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Lesotho #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
62Oman45.8
63Ghana45.8
64Turkey45.4
65Lesotho45.2
66Romania44.8
67Kuwait44.2
68Italy43.8
69S. Africa43.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
50Ghana1.81
51Zambia1.83
52Sierra Leone1.86
53Lesotho1.86
54Morocco1.87
55Tanzania1.87
56Burkina Faso1.88
57Djibouti1.88
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
53Switzerland19
54UK19
55Venezuela19
56Lesotho19
57Rwanda19
58Finland19
59Netherlands19
60Nicaragua19
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
92Cape Verde92
93Botswana93
94Liberia94
95Lesotho94
96Kazakhstan96
97Ecuador97
98Kyrgyzstan98
99Tanzania99
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
77Nicaragua2831
78Benin2833
79Dominican Rep.2834
80Lesotho2836
81Bhutan2842
82Togo2845
83Greece2846
84Kosovo2847
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
83Kyrgyzstan0.41
84Cyprus0.42
85Kazakhstan0.42
86Lesotho0.42
87Georgia0.43
88Romania0.43
89Vietnam0.45
90Azerbaijan0.45
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #Lesotho #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
129Tanzania0.54
130Pakistan0.55
131Ghana0.55
132Lesotho0.55
133Syria0.55
134Togo0.56
135Kenya0.56
136Egypt0.57
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
146Sudan1964
147Libya1964
148Papua New Guinea1964
149Lesotho1965
150Botswana1965
151Tuvalu1967
152Kiribati1967
153Ecuador1967
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Lesotho is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below35:

Christian96.8%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated3.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Christian 80%, indigenous beliefs 20%36.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Lesotho #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
147Libya21%
148Zimbabwe21%
149Equatorial Guinea21%
150Lesotho21%
151Indonesia20%
152Marshall Islands20%
153Algeria20%
154Nicaragua19%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)38
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio38
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
146Papua New Guinea0.0
147French Polynesia0.0
148Palestine0.0
149Lesotho0.0
150Monaco0.0
151Bermuda0.0
152Isle of Man0.0
153San Marino0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Lesotho #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
158Kenya90.9
159Central African Rep.91.9
160Togo92.0
161Lesotho92.7
162Dominican Rep.97.9
163Gabon99.9
164Somalia103.9
165Cameroon104.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
94Colombia6.2
95Haiti6.4
96Cook Islands6.4
97Lesotho6.5
98Vietnam6.6
99Equatorial Guinea6.6
100St Vincent & Grenadines6.6
101Suriname6.6
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
97Guyana97
98Colombia98
99Vietnam99
100Lesotho100
101Tanzania101
102Equatorial Guinea102
103Barbados103
104Venezuela104
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %41
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
108Australia92.1
109Barbados92.1
110Ghana91.7
111Lesotho91.7
112Malawi91.7
113Mexico91.6
114Moldova91.5
115Iceland91.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
14Mozambique 82
15Nepal 83
16Afghanistan 84
17Lesotho 88
18Trinidad & Tobago 97
19Burundi 98
20Tanzania 101
21Liberia 104
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
145Qatar145
146Philippines146
147Mozambique147
148Lesotho148
149Venezuela149
150Libya150
151Gabon151
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
105Bahrain105
106Ecuador106
107Uganda107
108Lesotho108
109Georgia109
110Kuwait110
111China111
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
99Lithuania99
100Luxembourg100
101Niger101
102Lesotho102
103Antigua & Barbuda103
104Latvia104
105Laos105
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
115Iraq115
116Dominica116
117Saudi Arabia117
118Lesotho118
119Oman119
120Egypt120
121Colombia121
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
64Honduras64
65Korea, S.65
66Benin66
67Lesotho67
68Panama68
69New Zealand69
70Tunisia70
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
119Honduras0.04
120Guatemala0.04
121Bahrain0.04
122Colombia0.04
123Iraq0.03
124El Salvador0.03
125China0.03
126Lesotho0.01
q=126.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
145Mauritania$3 527
146Zambia$3 464
147Bangladesh$3 341
148Lesotho$3 319
149Micronesia$3 291
150Djibouti$3 216
151Ivory Coast$3 163
152Kyrgyzstan$3 097
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
170Angola37.4
171Central African Rep.36.4
172Niger35.7
173Lesotho33.8
174Haiti33.7
175Madagascar33.7
176Nepal31.4
177India30.6
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)44
Pos.Higher is better
Score44
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
98Cambodia15
99Vanuatu15
100Congo, DR15
101Lesotho15
102Belize15
103Belarus15
104Kyrgyzstan15
105Jordan12
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/lesotho.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #buddhism #burundi #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #judaism #lesotho #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #research #science #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lt.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Lesotho".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  36. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  37. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  38. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  39. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  40. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  41. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  42. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  44. Sources:^

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