The Human Truth Foundation

Haiti (Republic of Haiti)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

Like this page:

Share this page:
Comments:
FB, LJ

#benin #ghana #haiti #monotheism #nigeria #togo

Haiti
Republic of Haiti
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index122nd best
CapitalPort-au-Prince
Land Area 27 560km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, Caribbean
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population10.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy63.12yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 657 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesHT, HTI, 3325
Internet Domain.ht6
CurrencyGourde (HTG)7
Telephone+5098

1. Overview

#france #spain

The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the forced resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations. Continued instability and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti inaugurated a democratically elected president and parliament in May of 2006. This was followed by contested elections in 2010 that resulted in the election of Haiti's current President, Michel MARTELLY. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverHaiti is still struggling with the aftermath of the devastating 2010 earthquake. But this is a proud country, born of revolution, and its people are determined to rebuild for a better future. Forget for a moment the rubble that still clogs parts of the capital. In actual fact, Haiti was once at the forefront of Caribbean tourism. In the 1950s, Port-au-Prince was rivaled only by Havana as a destination for the rich and famous; its jazz clubs and casinos a favored getaway for the Hollywood elite.

With a modicum of stability, Haiti could yet become the Caribbean´s alternative travel destination par excellence: it has palm-fringed beaches to rival any of its neighbors. But lazing on the sand isn´t really the point of Haiti (although you can do that, too). The richness of the country lies in its history and culture, closer to its African roots than any other Caribbean nation and ever present in its vibrant art and music scenes.

Haiti isn´t the easiest country to travel in. You frequently need to keep an ear out for the news, and it can be more expensive than you´d expect. However, once you´re there, travel is not only possible, but also incredibly rewarding. It´s an addictive country to visit.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Haiti National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
161Lesotho160
162Senegal162
163Uganda163
164Haiti163
165Sudan165
166Togo166
167Benin167
168Yemen168
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
119Venezuela50.9
120Morocco50.9
121Kenya50.7
122Haiti50.5
123Indonesia50.4
124Jordan50.4
125Russia50.2
126Honduras50.2
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
64Kiribati09.5
65Guatemala09.5
66Saudi Arabia09.5
67Haiti09.6
68Vanuatu09.9
69Cape Verde10.0
70Philippines10.3
71Cambodia10.4
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
67Hong Kong10.2
68Dominican Rep.10.1
69Zimbabwe9.9
70Haiti9.9
71San Marino9.9
72Burkina Faso9.7
73Slovakia9.6
74Morocco9.3
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
124Namibia3.08
125Zimbabwe3.15
126Tajikistan3.19
127Haiti3.19
128Gabon3.20
129Swaziland3.21
130Bolivia3.25
131Pakistan3.25
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
169Papua New Guinea0.4
170Brazil0.4
171Angola0.3
172Haiti0.3
173Vanuatu0.3
174Tunisia0.3
175Honduras0.3
176Eritrea0.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
155Mauritania63.24
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
160Kenya62.16
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
79S. Sudan10.7m
80Czech Rep.10.6m
81Guinea10.5m
82Haiti10.3m
83Bolivia10.2m
84Dominican Rep.10.2m
85Hungary9.9m
86Serbia9.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Haiti's population is predicted to rise to 12.53 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 3.19. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
139Mozambique0.57
140Sudan0.57
141Congo, (Brazzaville)0.59
142Haiti0.59
143Papua New Guinea0.59
144Benin0.61
145Malawi0.61
146Burkina Faso0.62
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
81Bosnia & Herzegovina1949
82Barbados1950
83India1950
84Haiti1950
85Antigua & Barbuda1951
86Grenada1951
87Nepal1951
88Dominica1951
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Haiti and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Haiti is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #voodoo

Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better20
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
105Zambia0
106Tanzania0
107Malaysia0
108Haiti0
109Iraq0
110Guinea0
111Ghana0
112Jordan0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below21:

Christian86.9%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.2%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated10.6%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%. Note: Despite what they put on official forms, roughly half of the population practices Voodoo.22.

An introduction to Vodun, or Voodoo:

A traditional religion from Western Africa with an ethical focus on combating greed and promoting honour. It is based on the worship of spirits that are loyal to a monotheistic23 deistic (non-interventionist) creator god. It is more correctly known as Vodun, although other titles include Vodoun, Voudou, and Sevi Lwa. "The name is traceable to an African word for 'spirit'. Vodun's roots go back to the West African Yoruba people who lived in 18th and 19th century Dahomey. That country occupied parts of today's Togo, Benin and Nigeria"24. When West Africans were forcibly taken to Haiti and other islands in the West Indies as slaves, their beliefs spread with them23,24, and also to South America and the Caribbean region in general25. Voodoo was suppressed and its followers persecuted23 by Christian powermongers, and it was forced underground, with many believers merely pretending to be Christian, and practicing Voodoo in secret23,26,27. As a result of this, Voodoo priests were well-placed to orchestrate and inspire slave revolts. It is now acknowledged that Voodoo merged African beliefs with re-interpreted Christian saints and symbols25,23, but also that Christianity abused and mis-represented Voodoo, causing long term damage to its reputation. There are up to 60 million Voodoo practitioners worldwide, with about 16 million in Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria23.

"An introduction to Vodun, or Voodoo" by Vexen Crabtree (2016)

Vodun is still practiced by the majority of Haiti even though the majority also call themselves Christian. "It was given official status as a national religion in 2003 by Jean-Bertrand Aristide, then Haitian president"23. Haitian Voodoo is has some features that distinguishing it from African Voodoo. The success of the hope-inspiring slave revolts was directly related to the secretive and suppressed nature of the Vodun religion within the slave culture. The underground religion naturally expanded to include underground abolitionist activism and played an inspirational and functional role, directly facilitating underground societies and powerful leaders, something which no other anti-slave movement did. This series of revolts led to Toussaint L'Ouverture and his successes in the region, which inspired and fuelled abolitionist movements worldwide.

Some historians say that voodoo's bad image in the world is because Haitian slaves used it as a form of protest; it gave them a secret place where they could foment revolt against their masters.

The Economist (2006)28

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
29
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
169Kiribati13%
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
175Cambodia11%
176Gabon10%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
90Tajikistan38.1
91Vietnam38.6
92Pakistan38.7
93Haiti39.3
94Syria39.4
95Kyrgyzstan39.6
96Georgia39.7
97Barbados40.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita30
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
92Bolivia5.9
93Ivory Coast6.0
94Colombia6.2
95Haiti6.4
96Cook Islands6.4
97Lesotho6.5
98Vietnam6.6
99Equatorial Guinea6.6
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
181Samoa68.1
182Yemen67.4
183Papua New Guinea66.3
184Haiti65.7
185Vanuatu65.5
186Guinea63.3
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
32
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
23Sao Tome & Principe 111
24India 111
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
27Peru 116
28Somalia 117
29Ghana 121
30Benin 122
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)
Lower is better

Per 100k33
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
4Jordan0.2
5Maldives0.7
6Azerbaijan1.3
7S. Africa1.8
8Bahamas2.5
9Peru2.9
10Kuwait3.6
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties34
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
135Nepal13
136Djibouti13
137Ethiopia12
138Haiti12
139Dominica12
140Central African Rep.12
141Bahrain12
142Israel12
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank35
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
58El Salvador58
59Ghana59
60Jamaica60
61Haiti61
62Fiji61
63Dominican Rep.63
64Cambodia64
65Madagascar65
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
36
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
45Burkina Faso2370
46Taiwan2382
47Samoa2384
48Haiti2409
49Korea, S.2448
50Comoros2452
51S. Africa2456
52Japan2517
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%37
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
32Trinidad & Tobago24
33Argentina24
34Mexico24
35Haiti26
36Mongolia26
37Switzerland26
38Belgium27
39Germany27
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
38
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
50Syria43.67
51Luxembourg43.75
52Panama45
53Haiti45
54Malawi45.25
55Israel45.25
56Taiwan46
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
39
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
q=157.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
40
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
139Mali3.8
140Senegal3.8
141Nepal3.8
142Haiti3.8
143Burundi3.8
144Afghanistan3.8
145Yemen3.7
146Chad3.7
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
169S. Sudan$1 882
170Afghanistan$1 871
171Uganda$1 670
172Haiti$1 657
173Rwanda$1 617
174Zimbabwe$1 588
175Solomon Islands$1 561
176Gambia$1 541
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
41
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
151UAE40.7
152Nigeria40.2
153Benin39.6
154Haiti39.5
155Mali39.4
156Turkmenistan38.4
157Niger37.6
158Togo36.4
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score42
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
98Fiji15
99Gibraltar15
100Puerto Rico10
101Haiti10
102Kyrgyzstan10
103Laos10
104Azerbaijan10
105India10
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better43
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
...
125Chad68
126Burkina Faso68
127Guinea67
128Haiti67
129Liberia67
130Zimbabwe66
131Senegal66
132Gambia66
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/haiti.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#benin #buddhism #christianity #france #ghana #haiti #hinduism #islam #judaism #monotheism #nigeria #spain #togo #voodoo

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source..

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

Chesi, Gert
(1980) Voodoo: Africa's Secret Power. Published by Perlinger.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Drury, Nevill
(1996) Shamanism. Paperback book. Published by Element Books.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

Momen, Moojan
(1999) The Phenomenon Of Religion: A Thematic Approach. Paperback book. Published by Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK. Book Review.

Murray et al.
(2009) Hammond Atlas of World Religions. Hardback book. Published by Hammond World Atlas Corporation, Langenscheidt Publishing Group, New York, USA. Contributing authors: Stuart A.P. Murray; Robert Huber; Elizabeth Mechem; Sarah Novak; Devid West Reynolds, PhD; Tricia Wright; Thomas Cussans.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Haiti" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  21. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  22. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  23. Murray et al. (2009) p359.^
  24. "Vodun (and related religions)" by the Ontario Consultants for Religious Tolerance. website accessed 1999, 2009.^
  25. Chesi (1980) p5-6.^
  26. Drury (1996) p79.^
  27. Momen (1999) chapter 19 "Religion in the Modern World" p507.^
  28. The Economist (2006 Jan 28) article "Voodoo still wins" .^
  29. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  30. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  31. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  32. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  33. UN (2013) World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  34. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  35. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  36. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  37. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  38. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  39. ^
  40. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  41. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  42. Higher is better. Sources:^
  43. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

©2017 Vexen Crabtree all rights reserved.
This site uses the HTF Disclaimer (as linked here)