The Human Truth Foundation

China (People's Republic of China)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #china #confucianism #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #taoism #the_environment

China
People's Republic of China
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBeijing
Land Area9 327 490km21
LocationAsia
Population1.4b (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.96yrs (2017)3
GNI$13 345 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCN, CHN, 1565
Internet Domain.cn6
CurrencyYuan Renminbi (CNY)7
Telephone+868

1. Overview

#china

For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverAntique yet up-to-the-minute, outwardly urban but quintessentially rural, conservative yet path-breaking, space-age but old-fashioned, China is a land of mesmerising contradictions.

China is modernising at a head-spinning pace, but slick skyscrapers and Lamborghini showrooms are little more than dazzling baubles. ... After three decades of full-throttle development and socialist iconoclasm, you won´t find history at every turn, but travel selectively in China and rich seams of antiquity pop into view amid tumble-down chunks of the Great Wall, temple-topped mountains, quaint villages and water towns.

Culinary exploration is also an enticing aspect of Middle Kingdom travel: wolf down Peking duck, size up a sizzling lamb kebab in Kaifeng or gobble down Lánzhōu noodles on the Silk Road. And don´t forget about what´s cooking along China´s frontier lands - always an excellent reason to get off the beaten path.

And China is vast. Off-the-scale massive. You simply have to get outside: island-hop in Hong Kong, gaze over the epic grasslands of Inner Mongolia or squint up at the mind-blowing peaks of the Himalayas.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. China National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
87Peru87
88Thailand87
89Ecuador89
90China90
91Fiji91
92St Lucia92
93Mongolia92
94Jamaica94
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
101Suriname51.7
102Belarus51.7
103Tunisia51.3
104China51.3
105St Lucia51.0
106India50.9
107St Vincent & Grenadines50.9
108Lebanon50.9
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#China #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
127Israel22.9
128Sri Lanka23.7
129Moldova24.7
130China25.3
131Mauritius25.9
132Uruguay26.8
133Cyprus26.9
134Chile27.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
185Qatar0.7
186Nigeria0.6
187Maldives0.6
188China0.6
189Japan0.6
190Oman0.5
191Madagascar0.4
192Montenegro0.0
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
62Panama2.42
63Peru2.43
64Barbados1.57
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
185Myanmar (Burma)0.2
186Korea, N.0.2
187Morocco0.2
188Cuba0.1
189Peru0.1
190Vietnam0.1
191Indonesia0.1
192China0.1
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
55Montenegro76.40
56Antigua & Barbuda76.24
57Ecuador76.12
58China75.96
59Vietnam75.94
60Jamaica75.82
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
4Indonesia244.8m
5Brazil198.4m
6Pakistan180.0m
7Nigeria166.6m
8Bangladesh152.4m
9Russia142.7m
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

This country has a fertility rate of 1.57. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#australia #china #equality #freedom #germany #human_rights #politics #russia #syria #tolerance #USA

The concept of Human Rights has not been accepted by the Chinese government. Although outright draconian abuse only exists in terms of censorship and political limitations, there are many areas where human rights are more generically denied. Since President Xi Jinping took power in 2012, a "broad and sustained offensive on human rights" has ensued, according to Human Rights Watch's 2017 report18. Forced confessions and televised sham trials were used to harass and silence human rights supporters and "the government also tried to eliminate the country's few independent human rights news websites by jailing their founders"18. The government remains "hostile to women's rights activism" even though "women and girls in China continue to confront sexual abuse and harassment, employment discrimination, and domestic violence"19. China's censorship of Internet access is already one of the most draconian worldwide and these controls were made even stronger in 201718.

China does worse than average in its Global Peace Index rating20, LGBT equality21 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights22. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23 and in supporting press freedom24.

"Foreign governments did little in 2017 to push back against China's worsening rights record at home and abroad"18. China and Russia both worked together to prevent and delay investigations of widespread human rights abuses in Syria by the International Criminal Court25. Australia and Germany both applied some pressure, and although the USA followed suit, their efforts were undermined by their own President Trump's applause of President Xi.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Disbelief In God (2007)26
Pos.Higher is better26
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
36Lithuania13
37Singapore13
38Kazakhstan12
39China12
40Uruguay12
41USA10
42Trinidad & Tobago9
43Albania8
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion are the four main strands of religion in China; their beliefs and practices have intermingled and interchanged27,28, and most local communities combine bits of all of them29,30.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below31:

Christian5.1%
Muslim1.8%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist18.2%
Folk Religion21.9%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated52.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%. note: officially atheist (2002 est.)32.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on China33. Belief in heaven and hell is at just 12%. More people don't know what to believe (34%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (31%). Also, 2% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 8% believe in reincarnation.

Links:

6. The Internet

#China #internet #it_security #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
91Serbia54%
92Maldives54%
93Georgia53%
94China52%
95Vietnam52%
96S. Africa52%
97Dominican Rep.52%
98Uzbekistan51%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)36
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio36
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
56Egypt0.4
57Mexico0.4
58Bhutan0.4
59China0.3
60Iceland0.3
61Turkey0.3
62Uruguay0.3
63Moldova0.3
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)37
Pos.Lower is better37
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
69Rwanda1.50
70Tanzania1.50
71Maldives1.57
72China1.59
73Angola1.61
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
World Avg0.98
q=81.

According to Human Rights Watch, "the Chinese government, which already oversees one of the strictest online censorship regimes in the world, limited the provision of censorship circumvention tools and strengthened ideological control over education and mass media in 2017"18.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #China #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100038
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
19Maldives6.7
20Tunisia6.8
21Austria7.1
22China7.3
23Greece7.5
24Oman8.1
25Belgium8.2
26Spain8.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
99Equatorial Guinea6.6
100St Vincent & Grenadines6.6
101Suriname6.6
102China6.7
103Italy6.7
104Trinidad & Tobago6.7
105Macedonia6.7
106Burkina Faso6.8
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
45Mexico45
46Malaysia46
47Czechia47
48China48
49Singapore49
50Ecuador50
51Israel51
52Slovakia52
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %41
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
4Niue98.8
5Mongolia98.7
6Czechia98.7
7Seychelles98.6
8Korea, S.98.6
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
171Kazakhstan2 157
172Czechia2 194
173Bosnia & Herzegovina2 233
174China2 250
175Luxembourg2 284
176Belgium2 353
177Slovenia2 637
178Russia2 690
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
150Congo, DR126.5
151Turkey128
152Greece133
153Palestine135
154Yemen136.25
155China136.25
156Burundi145
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
67India67
68Lebanon68
69Senegal69
70China70
71Burundi71
72Tunisia72
73Timor-Leste (E. Timor)73
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
108Lesotho108
109Georgia109
110Kuwait110
111China111
112Swaziland112
113Argentina113
114Qatar114
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
37Germany37
38Togo38
39Argentina39
40China40
41Canada41
42Azerbaijan42
43Senegal43
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
106Namibia106
107Tunisia107
108Cape Verde108
109China109
110Kazakhstan110
111Jordan111
112Libya112
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
110Ecuador110
111Malawi111
112Laos112
113China113
114S. Africa114
115Cape Verde115
116Russia116
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
119Honduras0.04
120Guatemala0.04
121Bahrain0.04
122Colombia0.04
123Iraq0.03
124El Salvador0.03
125China0.03
126Lesotho0.01
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
90Mongolia5.0
91Romania5.0
92Bangladesh5.0
93China5.0
94Mozambique5.0
95Namibia4.9
96Kyrgyzstan4.9
97Hungary4.9
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
80Costa Rica$14 006
81Palau$13 771
82Algeria$13 533
83China$13 345
84Lebanon$13 312
85Colombia$12 762
86Dominican Rep.$12 756
87Macedonia$12 405
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
117Zambia51.0
118Grenada50.9
119Tanzania50.8
120China50.7
121Thailand49.9
122Micronesia49.8
123Libya49.8
124Ghana49.7
q=180.
IQ (2006)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
4Japan105
5Taiwan105
6China105
7Italy102
8Iceland101
9Switzerland101
10Mongolia101
11Netherlands100
12Norway100
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 18
http://www.humantruth.info/china.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #alcohol #australia #belief #buddhism #charity #china #christianity #confucianism #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #germany #god #happiness #health #heaven #hell #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #russia #science #smoking #syria #taoism #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #universalism #USA #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer
(1997) Religions of the World. Subtitled: "The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions, & Festivals". Published by Lionheart Books. By Elizabeth Breuilly, Joanne O'Brien & Martin Palmer. Published for Transedition Limited and Fernleigh Books. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Nov 10.

Erricker, Clive
(1995) Buddhism. Part of the TeachYourself Books series. A paperback book.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

Momen, Moojan
(1999) The Phenomenon Of Religion: A Thematic Approach. Published by Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK. A paperback book. Book Review.

Murray et al.
(2009) Hammond Atlas of World Religions. Published by Hammond World Atlas Corporation, Langenscheidt Publishing Group, New York, USA. Contributing authors: Stuart A.P. Murray; Robert Huber; Elizabeth Mechem; Sarah Novak; Devid West Reynolds, PhD; Tricia Wright; Thomas Cussans. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "China".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). p137-151-.^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p146-147-.^
  20. ^
  21. Sources:^
  22. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  23. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  24. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  25. Human Rights Watch (2018). p7-.^
  26. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)46.^
  27. Murray et al. (2009). p157.^
  28. Erricker (1995). Chapter 4 "Buddhist Scriptures and Schools" p74,155.^
  29. Breuilly, O'Brien & Palmer (1997). Chapter "Taoism" p132.^
  30. Momen (1999). Chapter 1 "The Concept of Religion" p23.^
  31. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  32. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  33. Ipsos (2011) .^
  34. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  35. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  36. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  37. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  38. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  39. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  40. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  41. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  42. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  44. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  45. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  46. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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