The Human Truth Foundation

Bangladesh (People's Republic of Bangladesh)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#bangladesh #blasphemy #extremism #morocco #murder #netherlands #religious_violence

Bangladesh
People's Republic of Bangladesh
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index143rd best
CapitalDhaka
Land Area 130 170km21
LocationAsia
Population152.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy71.99yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 341 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBD, BGD, 505
Internet Domain.bd6
CurrencyTaka (BDT)7
Telephone+8808

1. Overview

#bangladesh #hinduism #islam #pakistan

Muslim conversions and settlement in the region now referred to as Bangladesh began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won independence for Bangladesh in 1971, although at least 300,000 civilians died in the process. The post-independence, AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections in 1991. The BNP and AL have alternately held power since then, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has made great progress in food security since independence, and the economy has grown at an average of about 6 percent over the last two decades.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverGorgeously green yet swamped with people, Bangladesh is a rural wonderland laden with waterways, peppered with villages and bursting with humanity. Bangladeshis are famously friendly, and you are almost certain to receive a warm welcome everywhere you go. The tourism industry is in its infancy and foreign visitors are still an unusual sight outside Dhaka. ... More than 700 rivers flow through this small country and the result is a deliciously lush landscape with more shades of green than you ever imagined. There are almost as many kilometres of rivers in Bangladesh as there are roads, and travelling by boat is a way of life here. This provides a fabulous opportunity to see the country from a more unusual angle. Even if you´re going nowhere in particular, travelling by boat is one of the most rewarding things you can do during your visit. Bangladesh isn´t a tick-the-sights-off-the-list type of country, so slow down, relax and discover new ideas and ways of life.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Bangladesh National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
137Kiribati137
138Laos138
139Zambia139
140Bangladesh139
141Ghana139
142Sao Tome & Principe142
143Cambodia143
144Nepal144
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
140Algeria48.1
141Timor-Leste (E. Timor)48.1
142Rwanda47.7
143Bangladesh47.6
144Djibouti47.5
145Iran47.3
146Senegal47.2
147Sao Tome & Principe47.2
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
72Egypt10.5
73Libya10.5
74S. Africa10.5
75Bangladesh10.6
76Nepal10.8
77Bhutan10.8
78Micronesia10.8
79Honduras11.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
136Sweden3.4
137Ghana3.4
138Nepal3.3
139Bangladesh3.3
140Botswana3.2
141Spain3.0
142Central African Rep.2.9
143Angola2.8
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
21New Zealand2.15
22Azerbaijan2.16
23Chile1.84
24Bangladesh2.16
25Belgium1.83
26Algeria2.17
27Oman2.17
28Argentina2.18
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
156Nigeria0.7
157Nicaragua0.7
158Algeria0.7
159Bangladesh0.7
160Mexico0.7
161Congo, DR0.7
162El Salvador0.7
163Ethiopia0.6
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
102Palau72.87
103Vanuatu72.11
104Guatemala72.06
105Bangladesh71.99
106Libya71.76
107Moldova71.73
108Belarus71.46
109Egypt71.33
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
4Indonesia244.8m
5Brazil198.4m
6Pakistan180.0m
7Nigeria166.6m
8Bangladesh152.4m
9Russia142.7m
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Bangladesh's population is predicted to rise to 181.86 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.16. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
116Ethiopia0.50
117Guyana0.51
118Iran0.51
119Bangladesh0.52
120Senegal0.52
121Uganda0.52
122Sao Tome & Principe0.52
123Iraq0.53
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
157Congo, DR1970
158Yemen1970
159Switzerland1971
160Bangladesh1972
161Bahrain1973
162San Marino1973
163Andorra1973
164Jordan1974
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Bangladesh is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%20
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
109Sri Lanka99
110Malawi99
111Yemen99
112Indonesia99
113Niger99.5
114Bangladesh99.5
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better21
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
97Benin0
98Tunisia0
99Uganda0
100Bangladesh0
101UAE0
102Azerbaijan0
103Algeria0
104Yemen0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below22:

Christian0.2%
Muslim89.8%
Hindu9.1%
Buddhist0.5%
Folk Religion0.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, other 0.9% (2004)23.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Bangladesh states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. An amendment to the constitution passed in 2011 established Islam as the state religion yet reaffirmed the country is a "secular state".

Section 295A of the penal code states that any person who has "deliberate" or "malicious" intent to "hurt religious sentiments" can be imprisoned. Similarly, the Code of Criminal Procedure includes several clauses (99a-f) that states "the government may confiscate all copies of a newspaper if it publishes anything subversive of the state or provoking an uprising or anything that creates enmity and hatred among the citizens or denigrates religious beliefs."

Cases of Discrimination

On Jan. 4, 2012, the principal of a technical college, Yunus Ali, was arrested for keeping a copy of Taslima Nasrin's book Shame in the school library. The book tells the story of a Hindu family persecuted in Bangladesh. It was deemed blasphemous and banned by the Bangladeshi government in 1993 and Dr. Nasrin was forced to flee abroad to escape blasphemy charges and death threats.

On March 21, 2012, the Dhaka High Court ordered five Facebook pages and a website to be shut down after Dhaka University professors claimed the pages contained remarks and cartoons about the Prophet Muhammad, the Holy Qu'ran, Jesus, Buddha, and the Hindu Gods that insulted religious sentiments.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)24

The Murders of Freethinkers from 2013 Onwards:

Since 2013 in Bangladesh a horrible spate of killings of freethinkers, secularists and liberals has occurred25. It began with a march of tens of thousands of Muslims on the capital, demanding that the government itself increase censorship of "anti-Muslim" content. Students, community leaders and University professors alike have been hacked to death with machetes as a result of putting content online that is pro-science, pro-secularist, anti-war crimes, or which advocate LGBT tolerance. One extremist group openly published a list of 84 of their targets and in 2016 Apr the rate of murders increased to one a week. The Bangladesh government has done very little to curb the extremists. Murders for blasphemy against Islam do not just occur in Muslim counties; there is a long and unfortunate history of the same occurring in Europe and elsewhere - Theo van Gogh was killed in Amsterdam by a Dutch Moroccan Muslim for making a film criticizing Islam's attitude towards women.

"Blasphemy and Censorship: In Christianity and Islam: 4.1. Islam: Blasphemy and Censorship" by Vexen Crabtree (2012)

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
26
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
164Laos16%
165Namibia16%
166Turkmenistan15%
167Bangladesh13%
168Iraq13%
169Kiribati13%
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio27
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
105Laos0.0
106Malta0.0
107Turkmenistan0.0
108Bangladesh0.0
109Qatar0.0
110Kuwait0.0
111Guernsey0.0
112Bahamas0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
28
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
77Bangladesh1.87
78Sudan1.98
79India2.10
80Russia2.42
81USA3.68
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
147Mauritania78.6
148Venezuela79.4
149Guatemala80.7
150Bangladesh83.0
151Benin83.2
152Iraq84.0
153Sao Tome & Principe84.3
154Guyana88.0
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita29
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
4Mauritania0.1
5Comoros0.2
6Saudi Arabia0.2
7Bangladesh0.2
8Yemen0.3
9Niger0.3
10Egypt0.4
11Iraq0.5
12Somalia0.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
77Norway94.3
78Bolivia94.2
79UAE94.0
80Bangladesh94.0
81Tanzania94.0
82Germany94.0
83Lithuania93.9
84Estonia93.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
31
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
99Cambodia 645
100Equatorial Guinea 649
101Singapore 652
102Bangladesh 665
103Morocco 671
104New Zealand 680
105Kyrgyzstan 683
106Qatar 698
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties32
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
107Maldives15
108Andorra15
109Cape Verde15
110Bangladesh15
111Mozambique15
112Dominican Rep.14
113Kenya14
114Japan14
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank33
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
134Swaziland134
135Gabon135
136Togo136
137Bangladesh137
138Belize138
139Congo, (Brazzaville)139
140Nigeria140
141China141
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
34
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
140Oman4151
141Congo, DR4166
142Cambodia4181
143Bangladesh4201
144Malaysia4273
145Palestine4309
146Philippines4311
147Russia4342
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%35
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
48Bolivia30
49Georgia32
50Kazakhstan32
51Bangladesh32
52Bosnia & Herzegovina32
53Costa Rica32
54Uruguay33
55Croatia33
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
36
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
97Paraguay84.75
98Argentina86.5
99Gabon86.75
100Bangladesh87.5
101Brazil88.5
102Mexico89.5
103India89.75
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
37
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
88USA2.06
89China2.06
90Dominican Rep.2.07
91Bangladesh2.07
92Guinea2.07
93Papua New Guinea2.08
94Trinidad & Tobago2.08
95Angola2.11
q=157.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
38
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
89Latvia5.0
90Mongolia5.0
91Romania5.0
92Bangladesh5.0
93China5.0
94Mozambique5.0
95Namibia4.9
96Kyrgyzstan4.9
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
144Ghana$3 839
145Mauritania$3 527
146Zambia$3 464
147Bangladesh$3 341
148Lesotho$3 319
149Micronesia$3 291
150Djibouti$3 216
151Ivory Coast$3 163
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
39
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
135Guinea44.4
136Papua New Guinea44.3
137Bolivia44.3
138Bangladesh44.0
139Burundi43.9
140Ethiopia43.1
141Mongolia42.8
142Uzbekistan42.3
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score40
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
181Belize-100
182Tonga-100
183St Lucia-120
184Bangladesh-120
185Brunei-120
186Trinidad & Tobago-120
187Kuwait-120
188Seychelles-130
q=211.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 16
http://www.humantruth.info/bangladesh.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#bangladesh #blasphemy #buddhism #christianity #extremism #hinduism #islam #judaism #morocco #murder #netherlands #pakistan #religious_violence

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Guardian. UK newspaper. See Which are the Best and Worst Newspapers in the UK?. Respectable and generally well researched UK broadsheet newspaper..

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Jun 22.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Bangladesh" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Gallup (2009) .^
  21. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  22. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  23. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  24. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  25. The Guardian (2016 Apr 07) article "Secular activist who criticised Islamism killed in Dhaka". Date last accessed 2017 Jan 28.^
  26. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  27. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  29. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  30. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  31. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  32. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  33. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  34. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  35. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  36. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  37. ^
  38. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  39. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  40. Higher is better. Sources:^

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