The Human Truth Foundation

Sudan (Republic of the Sudan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #morals #research #science #sudan #the_environment

Sudan
Republic of the Sudan
StatusIndependent State
CapitalKhartoum
Land Area2 376 000km21
LocationAfrica
Population35.0m (2011)2
Life Expectancy63.73yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 846 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesSD, SDN, 7365
Internet Domain.sd6
CurrencyDinar (SDD)7
Telephone+2498

1. Overview

#chad #ethiopia #south_sudan #UK

Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThere is no country on earth that travellers are as apprehensive to visit as they are pained to leave. The Sudanese are as diverse as they are mysterious, as generous as they are welcoming. Wake at the break of day under the golden pyramids of godlike kings of old; traverse a searing desert to the place where two Nile rivers become one and watch a million blood red fish swarm through gardens of coral. Whichever way you look at it, there´s just no denying that among Sudan´s sweeping hills of sand lie treasures the rest of the world are only just beginning to understand.

Until July 2011 Sudan was the biggest country in Africa, but now, with South Sudan having broken away to form a new nation, maps of Africa are being redrawn. This redefining of national boundaries is making for huge changes, geographically, politically, financially and culturally, for the Sudanese. But for a traveller some things never change; Sudanese hospitality remains second to none, and for most people, travelling through Sudan is such an eye-opening and rewarding experience that many come away saying that Sudan was their favourite country in Africa.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Sudan National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
162Senegal162
163Uganda163
164Haiti163
165Sudan165
166Togo166
167Benin167
168Yemen168
169Afghanistan169
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
183Mauritania38.3
184Mali38.0
185Niger38.0
186Sudan37.9
187Syria35.7
188Burundi35.6
189Marshall Islands35.4
190Equatorial Guinea34.3
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #population #Sudan

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
40Ethiopia06.6
41Swaziland06.6
42Central African Rep.06.8
43Sudan06.8
44Mauritania06.8
45Kuwait06.8
46Congo, (Brazzaville)07.0
47Solomon Islands07.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
150Argentina2.4
151Cambodia2.3
152Uganda2.2
153Sudan2.2
154Chad2.1
155Australia2.1
156Serbia2.0
157Venezuela1.8
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
131Central African Rep.1.8
132Zambia1.8
133Malawi1.8
134Sudan1.7
135Japan1.7
136Thailand1.7
137Sri Lanka1.7
138Senegal1.6
World Avg9.2
q=192.

Life Expectancy (2015)15
Pos.Higher is better
Years15
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
155Mauritania63.24
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)16
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth16
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
33Poland38.3m
34Algeria36.5m
35Uganda35.6m
36Sudan35.0m
37Canada34.7m
38Iraq33.7m
39Afghanistan33.4m
40Morocco32.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.
Sudan's population is predicted to rise to 50.75 million by 2030.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery #Sudan

Corruption (2012-2016)17
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score17
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
169Turkmenistan18.2
170Libya16.8
171Iraq16.6
172S. Sudan13.8
173Sudan12.2
174Afghanistan10.8
175Korea, N.08.8
176Somalia08.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)18
Pos.Lower is better18
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
150Central African Rep.2.87
151Korea, N.2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
154Iraq3.19
155Sudan3.19
156Afghanistan3.25
157Somalia3.39
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)19
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties19
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
119Botswana14
120Madagascar14
121Syria14
122Sudan14
123Cameroon14
124Uzbekistan14
125Mauritania13
126Sri Lanka13
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Press Freedom (2013)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
166Djibouti6740
167Laos6799
168Yemen6922
169Sudan7006
170Cuba7164
171Vietnam7178
172China7307
173Iran7340
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)21
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims21
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
151Turkmenistan1.12
152Rwanda1.16
153Chad1.20
154Sudan1.20
155Mongolia1.23
156Congo, DR1.37
157Somalia1.55
158Iran1.62
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory22. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends23. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life24. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves25.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery26. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity27. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.28. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi21, Eritrea21, Indonesia29) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery30.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #Sudan #women

Gender Inequality (2015)31
Pos.Lower is better31
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
137Swaziland0.57
138Cameroon0.57
139Mozambique0.57
140Sudan0.57
141Congo, (Brazzaville)0.59
142Haiti0.59
143Papua New Guinea0.59
144Benin0.61
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote32
Pos.Lower is better
Year32
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
143Afghanistan1963
144Equatorial Guinea1963
145Bahamas1963
146Sudan1964
147Libya1964
148Papua New Guinea1964
149Lesotho1965
150Botswana1965
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Sudan is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)33
Pos.Lower is better
%33
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
76Pakistan92
77Paraguay92
78Saudi Arabia93
79Sudan93
80Tunisia93
81Uganda93
82Palestine93
83Nepal93
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below34:

Christian5.4%
Muslim90.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority35.

When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Sudan into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harrassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)36. The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)37, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Sudan states:

The interim constitution and other laws and policies provide for some freedom of religion or belief. However, there are Islamic prohibitions against apostasy, blasphemy, and interfaith marriages. The Interim National Constitution enshrines Islamic law as a source of legislation in the country, and the official laws and policies of the government and the ruling National Congress Party favour Islam.

Although there is no legal penalty for converting from another religion to Islam, converting from Islam to another religion or belief is punishable by imprisonment or death. Persons convicted of conversion are given the opportunity to recant their conversion before execution. A Muslim man may marry a Christian or Jewish women, but a Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim unless he converts to Islam. The penalty for blasphemy and "defamation" of Islam is up to six months in prison, whipping, and/or a fine.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)38

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Sudan #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
136Ghana28%
137Swaziland28%
138Guatemala27%
139Sudan26%
140Sao Tome & Principe26%
141Yemen25%
142Senegal23%
143Angola23%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)40
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio40
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
67Indonesia0.2
68S. Africa0.1
69Jersey0.1
70Sudan0.1
71Ukraine0.1
72Lithuania0.1
73Vanuatu0.1
74Iran0.1
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
77Bangladesh1.87
78Sudan1.98
79India2.10
80Russia2.42
81USA3.68
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #parenting #population #smoking #Sudan #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)31
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100031
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
139Nepal71.9
140Cape Verde73.4
141Afghanistan74.0
142Sudan74.0
143Panama74.5
144Ecuador75.9
145Namibia76.8
146Senegal78.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)42
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita42
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
46Togo2.3
47Lebanon2.4
48Malawi2.5
49Sudan2.7
50Israel2.8
51Tajikistan2.8
52Kiribati3.0
53Papua New Guinea3.0
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)43
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %43
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
122Senegal89.5
123Peru89.3
124Ireland89.2
125Sudan89.2
126Honduras88.8
127Kenya88.5
128Costa Rica88.5
129Colombia88.4
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
70S. Sudan 398
71Belize 400
72Swaziland 427
73Sudan 428
74Costa Rica 432
75Botswana 449
76Syria 459
77Djibouti 476
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
73Botswana63.75
74Ghana63.75
75Spain64
76Sudan64
77Tajikistan64.5
78Guinea65.75
79Cameroon66
q=156.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
82Zambia0.28
83Botswana0.25
84Armenia0.24
85Sudan0.23
86Uruguay0.23
87Mongolia0.23
88Bermuda0.23
89Togo0.22
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
109Serbia4.5
110Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
111Bahrain4.5
112Sudan4.4
113Cameroon4.4
114Ethiopia4.4
115Madagascar4.4
116Armenia4.4
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)15
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $15
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
140Nicaragua$4 747
141Honduras$4 466
142Marshall Islands$4 412
143Sudan$3 846
144Ghana$3 839
145Mauritania$3 527
146Zambia$3 464
147Bangladesh$3 341
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
112Moldova52.0
113Botswana51.7
114Honduras51.5
115Sudan51.5
116Oman51.3
117Zambia51.0
118Grenada50.9
119Tanzania50.8
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)48
Pos.Higher is better
Score48
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
189Libya-42
190Morocco-42
191Solomon Islands-44
192Qatar-54
193Sudan-67
194Saudi Arabia-72
195Somalia-79
196Syria-84
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jul 07
http://www.humantruth.info/sudan.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #buddhism #burundi #chad #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #ethiopia #france #gender #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #south_sudan #Sudan #the_environment #the_internet #UK #vaccines #women

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References: (What's this?)

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Sudan".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  16. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  17. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  18. ^
  19. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  20. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  21. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  22. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  23. McCall (1979). P180.^
  24. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  25. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  29. Klein (2004) .^
  30. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  31. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  33. Gallup (2009) .^
  34. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  35. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  36. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 5 "A Closer Look China, India, and Iran" digital location 3560.^
  37. IHEU (2012) .^
  38. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  39. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  40. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  42. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  43. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  44. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  45. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  46. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  47. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  48. Sources:^

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