The Human Truth Foundation

Kenya (Republic of Kenya)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#kenya #pentecostalism

Kenya
Republic of Kenya
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index121st best
CapitalNairobi
Land Area 569 140km21
LocationAfrica
Population42.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy62.16yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 881 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesKE, KEN, 4045
Internet Domain.ke6
CurrencyShilling (KES)7
Telephone+2548

1. Overview

Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over a constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1,500 people died. African Union-sponsored mediation led by former UN Secretary General Kofi ANNAN in late February 2008 resulted in a power-sharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. The power sharing accord included a broad reform agenda, the centerpiece of which was constitutional reform. In August 2010, Kenyans overwhelmingly adopted a new constitution in a national referendum. The new constitution introduced additional checks and balances to executive power and significant devolution of power and resources to 47 newly created counties. It also eliminated the position of prime minister following the first presidential election under the new constitution, which occurred on March 4, 2013. Uhuru KENYATTA, the son of founding president Jomo KENYATTA, won the March elections in the first round by a close margin and was sworn into office on 9 April 2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverKenya is the Africa you always dreamed of. This is a land of vast savannahs, immense herds of wildlife and peoples with proud traditions on the soil where human beings were born. Kenya is the Africa you always dreamed of. This is a land of vast savannahs, immense herds of wildlife and peoples with proud traditions on the soil where human beings were born.

When you think of Africa, you´re probably thinking of Kenya: the lone acacia tree, the snow-capped mountain, the harsh deserts, the palm-fringed coastline, the great Rift Valley, the dense forests – they´re all here.

Peopling this epic landscape, adding depth and resonance to Kenya´s age-old story, are some of Africa´s best-known peoples. The Maasai, the Samburu, the Turkana, the Swahili, the Kikuyu: these are the peoples whose histories and lives tell the story of the struggle to maintain traditions as the modern world crowds in, the daily fight for survival, the ancient tension between those who farm and those who roam.

Then, of course, there´s the wildlife. From the Masai Mara to Tsavo, this is a country of vivid experiences – elephants wallowing in swamps in the shadow of Mt Kilimanjaro, the massed millions of pink flamingos, the landscape suddenly fallen silent and brought to attention by the arrival of an as-yet-unseen predator. Africa is the last great wilderness where these creatures survive.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Kenya National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
143Cambodia143
144Nepal144
145Myanmar (Burma)145
146Kenya146
147Pakistan147
148Swaziland148
149Syria149
150Angola150
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
118Moldova51.0
119Venezuela50.9
120Morocco50.9
121Kenya50.7
122Haiti50.5
123Indonesia50.4
124Jordan50.4
125Russia50.2
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
27Guinea06.1
28Guinea-Bissau06.1
29Lesotho06.1
30Kenya06.1
31S. Sudan06.2
32Tanzania06.2
33Sao Tome & Principe06.2
34Comoros06.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
170Thailand1.2
171UAE1.2
172Mongolia1.2
173Kenya1.1
174Indonesia1.1
175Myanmar (Burma)1.0
176Solomon Islands1.0
177India0.9
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
151Central African Rep.4.46
152Madagascar4.52
153Iraq4.57
154Kenya4.64
155Senegal4.65
156Gambia4.73
157Mozambique4.75
158Comoros4.78
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
120Poland2.2
121Fiji2.2
122Yemen2.1
123Kenya2.0
124Kiribati2.0
125Comoros2.0
126Mozambique1.9
127Uganda1.9
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
160Kenya62.16
161Niger61.94
162Ghana61.53
163Liberia61.19
164Zambia60.82
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
28Colombia47.6m
29Spain46.8m
30Ukraine44.9m
31Kenya42.7m
32Argentina41.1m
33Poland38.3m
34Algeria36.5m
35Uganda35.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Kenya's population is predicted to rise to 65.93 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.64. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
132Lesotho0.55
133Syria0.55
134Togo0.56
135Kenya0.56
136Egypt0.57
137Swaziland0.57
138Cameroon0.57
139Mozambique0.57
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
138Algeria1962
139Morocco1963
140Iran1963
141Kenya1963
142Fiji1963
143Afghanistan1963
144Equatorial Guinea1963
145Bahamas1963
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Kenya is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%20
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
83Nepal93
84Bahrain94
85Congo, DR94
86Kenya94
87Qatar95
88Zambia95
89Ghana95
90Mali95
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better21
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
111Ghana0
112Jordan0
113Gambia0
114Kenya0
115Ethiopia0
116Afghanistan0
117Egypt0
118Liberia0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below22:

Christian84.8%
Muslim9.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.7%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2.5%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Christian 82.5% (Protestant 47.4%, Catholic 23.3%, other 11.8%), Muslim 11.1%, Traditionalists 1.6%, other 1.7%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.7% (2009 census)23.

Kenya: A Pew Forum poll in 2006 found that nearly half or more of all Protestants in several countries, including Kenya, identified as Pentecostal Christians24.

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
25
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
13Kenya29
14Georgia30
15Nigeria33
16Korea, S.34
17Uganda34
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
26
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
107Jordan46%
108Panama45%
109Mexico45%
110Kenya45%
111Belize45%
112Ukraine44%
113Philippines44%
114Jamaica43%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio27
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
88Mauritius0.0
89Botswana0.0
90El Salvador0.0
91Kenya0.0
92Cameroon0.0
93Kyrgyzstan0.0
94Cambodia0.0
95Belarus0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
28
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
29Uzbekistan0.69
30Moldova0.71
31Zambia0.76
32Kenya0.77
33Cameroon0.77
34Burkina Faso0.79
35Ivory Coast0.82
36Ethiopia0.84
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
155Nicaragua88.8
156Guinea-Bissau89.5
157Zambia90.4
158Kenya90.9
159Central African Rep.91.9
160Togo92.0
161Lesotho92.7
162Dominican Rep.97.9
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita29
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
69Guinea-Bissau4.0
70Ethiopia4.2
71Kyrgyzstan4.3
72Kenya4.3
73Turkmenistan4.3
74UAE4.3
75India4.3
76Chad4.4
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
124Ireland89.2
125Sudan89.2
126Honduras88.8
127Kenya88.5
128Costa Rica88.5
129Colombia88.4
130Kiribati88.4
131Netherlands88.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
31
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
51Mali 236
52Dominican Rep. 245
53Togo 250
54Kenya 257
55Mauritius 261
56El Salvador 280
57Comoros 289
58Congo, (Brazzaville) 294
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties32
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
110Bangladesh15
111Mozambique15
112Dominican Rep.14
113Kenya14
114Japan14
115Jamaica14
116Jordan14
117China14
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank33
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
86Rwanda85
87India87
88Burkina Faso88
89Kenya88
90Bahrain88
91Jordan91
92Cape Verde92
93Botswana93
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
34
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
67Bosnia & Herzegovina2686
68Guyana2708
69Tanzania2734
70Kenya2780
71Zambia2793
72Mozambique2801
73Armenia2804
74Malawi2818
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%35
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
58Romania35
59Cameroon35
60Paraguay35
61Kenya35
62Lithuania36
63Guatemala36
64France37
65Chile37
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
36
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
16Indonesia14.75
17Iceland16
18Bhutan17.5
19Kenya17.75
20Jamaica20.5
21Austria21.25
22Kuwait21.5
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
37
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
116Turkmenistan2.24
117Bahrain2.25
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
120Algeria2.26
121Eritrea2.26
122Venezuela2.28
123Guatemala2.29
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
39Greece0.84
40India0.82
41Croatia0.81
42Kenya0.79
43Ukraine0.76
44Morocco0.73
45S. Africa0.73
46Serbia0.73
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
38
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
114Ethiopia4.4
115Madagascar4.4
116Armenia4.4
117Kenya4.4
118Djibouti4.4
119Tajikistan4.3
120Georgia4.2
121Uganda4.2
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
153Cambodia$3 095
154Sao Tome & Principe$3 070
155Cameroon$2 894
156Kenya$2 881
157Vanuatu$2 805
158Papua New Guinea$2 712
159Tajikistan$2 601
160Kiribati$2 475
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
39
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
103Congo, (Brazzaville)54.0
104Guatemala54.0
105Congo, DR51.6
106Kenya51.4
107Malawi51.4
108Ghana51.3
109Tajikistan51.3
110Myanmar (Burma)51.3
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score40
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
192Antigua & Barbuda-150
193Solomon Islands-160
194Gambia-160
195Kenya-160
196Sierra Leone-195
197Guyana-200
198Myanmar (Burma)-200
199Uganda-220
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better41
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
...
103Nepal78
104Mauritania76
105Uganda73
106Kenya72
107Tanzania72
108S. Africa72
109Ghana71
110Jamaica71
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/kenya.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #kenya #pentecostalism

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References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

Terence O. Ranger
(2008, Ed.) Evangelical Christianity And Democracy in Africa. Published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Part of the series of books on Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in the Global South (series editor Timothy Samuel Shah).

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Kenya" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Gallup (2009) .^
  21. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  22. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  23. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  24. Terence (2008) in the preface written by Timothy Shah.^
  25. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  26. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  27. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  29. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  30. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  31. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  32. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  33. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  34. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  35. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  36. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  37. ^
  38. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  39. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  40. Higher is better. Sources:^
  41. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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