The Human Truth Foundation

Rwanda (Republic of Rwanda)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #rwanda #the_environment

Rwanda
Republic of Rwanda
StatusIndependent State
CapitalKigali
Land Area 24 670km21
LocationAfrica
Population11.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy64.75yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 617 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesRW, RWA, 6465
Internet Domain.rw6
CurrencyFranc (RWF)7
Telephone+2508

1. Overview

In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF did in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there, and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009. In January 2013, Rwanda assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverWhile the scars still run deep, Rwanda has done a remarkable job of healing its wounds and turning towards the future with a surprising measure of optimism. Mention Rwanda to anyone with a small measure of geopolitical conscience, and they´ll no doubt recall images of the horrific genocide that brutalised this tiny country in 1994 when, in the span of just three months, nearly one million Tutsis and moderate Hutus were systematically butchered. But since those dark days a miraculous transformation has been wrought and today the country is one of ethnic unity and relative political stability, and a new-found air of optimism pervades the country.

Tourism is once again a key contributor to the economy and the industry´s brightest star is the chance to track rare mountain gorillas through bamboo forests in the shadow of the Virunga volcanoes. Of course, `Le Pays des Mille Collines´ (the Land of a Thousand Hills) isn´t all monkey business: Rwanda is a lush country of endless mountains and stunning scenery. The shores of Lake Kivu conceal some of Africa´s best inland beaches, while Parc National Nyungwe Forest protects extensive tracts of montane rainforest.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Rwanda National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
156Solomon Islands156
157Mauritania157
158Madagascar158
159Rwanda159
160Comoros160
161Lesotho160
162Senegal162
163Uganda163
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
142Myanmar (Burma)46.2
143Bangladesh46.1
144Laos46.0
145Rwanda45.8
146Libya45.7
147Tonga45.6
148Gambia45.5
149Nauru45.4
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Rwanda

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
45Kuwait06.8
46Congo, (Brazzaville)07.0
47Solomon Islands07.0
48Rwanda07.0
49Namibia07.4
50Botswana07.7
51UAE07.7
52Oman07.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
143Angola2.8
144France2.8
145Costa Rica2.7
146Rwanda2.6
147Pakistan2.5
148Vietnam2.5
149Niger2.4
150Argentina2.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
164Liberia5.08
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
168Nigeria5.45
169Tanzania5.51
170Congo, DR5.54
171Burkina Faso5.77
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
76Bhutan5.7
77Serbia5.3
78Samoa5.0
79Rwanda4.5
80Czechia4.4
81Dominican Rep.4.2
82Uzbekistan4.2
83Finland4.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
144Tanzania65.51
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
71Zimbabwe13.0m
72Chad11.8m
73Greece11.4m
74Rwanda11.3m
75Cuba11.2m
76Belgium10.8m
77Tunisia10.7m
78Portugal10.7m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Rwanda's population is predicted to rise to 17.58 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.30. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #Rwanda #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
47Korea, S.54.6
48Latvia54.0
49Mauritius54.0
50Rwanda52.6
51Hungary52.4
52Georgia52.4
53Czechia51.8
54Malaysia50.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
115Niger2.24
116Turkmenistan2.24
117Bahrain2.25
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
120Algeria2.26
121Eritrea2.26
122Venezuela2.28
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
54UK19
55Venezuela19
56Lesotho19
57Rwanda19
58Finland19
59Netherlands19
60Nicaragua19
61Canada19
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
83Tajikistan83
84Nepal84
85Barbados85
86Rwanda85
87India87
88Burkina Faso88
89Kenya88
90Bahrain88
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
157Egypt4866
158Pakistan5131
159Kazakhstan5508
160Rwanda5546
161Sri Lanka5659
162Saudi Arabia5688
163Uzbekistan6039
164Bahrain6275
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
149Brunei1.09
150Myanmar (Burma)1.10
151Turkmenistan1.12
152Rwanda1.16
153Chad1.20
154Sudan1.20
155Mongolia1.23
156Congo, DR1.37
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #Rwanda #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
81Belize0.38
82Mauritius0.38
83Lebanon0.38
84Rwanda0.38
85El Salvador0.38
86Peru0.39
87Sri Lanka0.39
88Ecuador0.39
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
126Cyprus1960
127Gambia1960
128El Salvador1961
129Rwanda1961
130Mauritania1961
131Burundi1961
132Malawi1961
133Paraguay1961
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Rwanda has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
90Mali95
91Chad95
92Algeria95
93Rwanda95
94Cambodia96
95Senegal96
96Philippines96
97Nigeria96
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
121Pakistan0
122Niger0
123Saudi Arabia0
124Rwanda0
125Cameroon0
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
128Madagascar0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian93.4%
Muslim1.8%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated3.6%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)38.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #politics #Rwanda #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
26Tunisia46
27Venezuela48
28Azerbaijan50
29Rwanda51
30Russia52
31Zimbabwe54
32Sri Lanka55
33Kazakhstan58
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
167Bangladesh13%
168Iraq13%
169Kiribati13%
170Rwanda12%
171Mali12%
172Haiti12%
173Papua New Guinea12%
174Djibouti12%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
66Afghanistan1.45
67Germany1.46
68Netherlands1.47
69Rwanda1.50
70Tanzania1.50
71Maldives1.57
72China1.59
73Angola1.61
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #parenting #population #Rwanda #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
73Ukraine24.1
74India24.5
75Samoa25.0
76Rwanda26.3
77Iran26.7
78Turkey27.6
79Kazakhstan27.9
80Burundi28.3
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)42
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita42
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
145Burundi9.3
146Argentina9.3
147Chile9.6
148Rwanda9.8
149Uganda9.8
150Netherlands9.9
151Nigeria10.1
152Canada10.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
138Albania138
139Ghana139
140Chad140
141Rwanda141
142Mali142
143Niger143
144Marshall Islands144
145Botswana145
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)44
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %44
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
45Bahamas96.2
46Maldives96.2
47Tajikistan96.1
48Rwanda96.1
49Sao Tome & Principe96.0
50Malaysia96.0
51Croatia95.9
52Nicaragua95.9
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
4Uganda 41
5Rwanda 53
6Samoa 54
7Congo, DR 74
8Ethiopia 76
9Vanuatu 76
10Guyana 77
11Suriname 79
12Malawi 80
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
142Tunisia121
143Montenegro121.75
144Bulgaria122
145Rwanda122.75
146Serbia125
147Russia126
148Lithuania126.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
115Bahrain115
116Kazakhstan116
117Sri Lanka117
118Rwanda118
119Guatemala119
120Niger120
121El Salvador121
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
157Iran157
158Gabon158
159Central African Rep.159
160Burundi160
161Rwanda161
162Congo, DR162
163Libya163
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
26Sri Lanka26
27Netherlands27
28Mongolia28
29Rwanda29
30Paraguay30
31Jordan31
32India32
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
141Mongolia141
142Syria142
143Mauritania143
144Rwanda144
145Chad145
146Central African Rep.146
147El Salvador147
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
51Niger51
52Sri Lanka52
53Haiti53
54Rwanda54
55Swaziland55
56Luxembourg56
57Mali57
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
132Sierra Leone4.1
133Guinea4.0
134Congo, DR4.0
135Rwanda4.0
136Burkina Faso4.0
137Comoros3.9
138Bulgaria3.9
139Mali3.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
170Afghanistan$1 871
171Uganda$1 670
172Haiti$1 657
173Rwanda$1 617
174Zimbabwe$1 588
175Solomon Islands$1 561
176Gambia$1 541
177Burkina Faso$1 537
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
145Uganda44.3
146Comoros44.2
147Mali43.7
148Rwanda43.7
149Zimbabwe43.4
150Cambodia43.2
151Solomon Islands43.2
152Iraq43.2
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)49
Pos.Higher is better
Score49
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
111Bahamas10
112Kazakhstan8
113Korea, N.8
114Rwanda7
115Congo, (Brazzaville)5
116Madagascar5
117Chad5
118Indonesia1
q=196.
IQ (2006)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
112Namibia70
113Togo70
114Botswana70
115Rwanda70
116Benin70
117Ivory Coast69
118Malawi69
119Niger69
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/rwanda.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #Rwanda #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rw.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Rwanda".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)50.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  40. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  41. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  42. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  43. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  44. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  45. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  46. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  47. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  48. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  49. Sources:^
  50. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

©2018 Vexen Crabtree all rights reserved.
This site uses the HTF Disclaimer (as linked here)