The Human Truth Foundation

Serbia (Republic of Serbia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #morals #research #science #serbia #the_environment

Serbia
Republic of Serbia
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBelgrade
Land Area 87 460km21
LocationEurope, The Balkans
Population9.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.05yrs (2017)3
GNI$12 202 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesRS, SRB, 6885
Internet Domain.rs, .yu6
CurrencyDinar (RSD)7
Telephone+3818

1. Overview

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip "TITO" Broz (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions were ultimately unsuccessful and led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999, to the withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999, and to the stationing of a NATO-led force in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, the UN-administered province of Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. The EU-moderated Belgrade-Pristina dialogue began in March 2011 and was raised to the level of prime ministers in October 2012.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverSerbia´s long history of multiculturalism and intellectual thought, rich folklore and thriving art and music scenes make it a must-see in the Balkans. During the 1990s Serbia went from being the powerhouse of Yugoslavia to the bully of the Balkans. But reputations can be remade as quickly as they may be lost. Everything you never heard about Serbia is true: it is warm, welcoming and a hell of a lot of fun. Today, the Serbs´ sense of industry, creativity and initiative sees their homeland resuming a pivotal role in the region.Exuding a feisty mix of élan and inat (Serbian trait of rebellious defiance), this country doesn´t do `mild´: Belgrade is one of the world´s wildest party destinations, Novi Sad hosts the rockingly hedonistic EXIT music festival, and even its hospitality is emphatic – expect to be greeted with rakija and a hearty three-kiss hello.

While political correctness is about as commonplace as a nonsmoking bar, Serbia is nevertheless a cultural crucible: there´s the art nouveau town of Subotica, bohemian Niš, and the minaret-studded Novi Pazar, which nudges some of the most sacred sites in Serbian Orthodoxy.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Serbia National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
64Mauritius64
65Trinidad & Tobago65
66Costa Rica66
67Serbia66
68Cuba68
69Iran69
70Georgia70
71Turkey71
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
45Bulgaria61.7
46Mauritius61.3
47Barbados61.1
48Serbia60.5
49Romania60.2
50Andorra60.0
51Monaco59.9
52Argentina59.7
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Serbia

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
147Albania31.8
148Norway32.2
149Iceland32.5
150Serbia32.7
151Hungary32.9
152Romania33.6
153USA33.8
154New Zealand34.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
153Sudan2.2
154Chad2.1
155Australia2.1
156Serbia2.0
157Venezuela1.8
158S. Africa1.7
159Iran1.7
160Libya1.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
63Peru2.43
64Barbados1.57
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
70Bahrain2.46
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
74St Lucia5.9
75Botswana5.8
76Bhutan5.7
77Serbia5.3
78Samoa5.0
79Rwanda4.5
80Czechia4.4
81Dominican Rep.4.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
66Hungary75.31
67Nicaragua75.21
68St Lucia75.20
69Serbia75.05
70Sri Lanka75.05
71Algeria75.03
72Georgia75.02
73Tunisia74.98
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
83Bolivia10.2m
84Dominican Rep.10.2m
85Hungary9.9m
86Serbia9.8m
87Somalia9.8m
88Belarus9.5m
89Sweden9.5m
90Azerbaijan9.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Serbia's population is predicted to fall to 9 479 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.56. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #Serbia #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
71Colombia41
72Hungary41
73Dominican Rep.41
74Serbia42
75Bulgaria44
76Mauritius44
77Poland45
78Indonesia48
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
75Senegal41.8
76Bulgaria41.4
77Brazil41.2
78Serbia40.8
79Tunisia40.2
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
82Burkina Faso38.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
61Panama1.90
62Jordan1.90
63Indonesia1.91
64Serbia1.92
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
8Spain23
9Slovenia23
10Paraguay23
11Serbia23
12Sweden23
13Uruguay23
14Italy22
15Denmark22
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
64Cambodia64
65Madagascar65
66Brunei66
67Serbia67
68Guatemala68
69Moldova69
70Namibia69
71Bolivia71
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
59Chile2624
60Sierra Leone2635
61Mauritius2647
62Serbia2659
63Croatia2661
64Central African Rep.2661
65Tonga2670
66Mauritania2676
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
64Trinidad & Tobago0.30
65Yemen0.31
66Namibia0.33
67Serbia0.33
68Bosnia & Herzegovina0.34
69Botswana0.34
70Honduras0.34
71Poland0.34
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Serbia #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
37China0.16
38Libya0.17
39Slovakia0.18
40Serbia0.18
41Latvia0.19
42Kazakhstan0.20
43USA0.20
44Malta0.22
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Serbia is on the way towards ending gender inequality.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
25Azerbaijan50
26Israel51
27Uzbekistan51
28Serbia54
29Ireland54
30USA65
31Argentina66
32Chile70
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian92.5%
Muslim4.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated3.3%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 97.1% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 54% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Serbia #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
88Costa Rica56%
89Kazakhstan56%
90US Virgin Islands54%
91Serbia54%
92Maldives54%
93Georgia53%
94China52%
95Vietnam52%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)39
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio39
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
76Panama0.1
77Croatia0.1
78Costa Rica0.1
79Serbia0.1
80Liechtenstein0.0
81Cyprus0.0
82Philippines0.0
83Macedonia0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #Serbia #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
58Uzbekistan17.7
59Hungary18.0
60Belarus18.2
61Serbia19.0
62Slovakia20.2
63Brunei21.0
64Bhutan21.4
65Djibouti21.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
177Finland12.3
178Poland12.5
179Grenada12.5
180Serbia12.6
181Portugal12.9
182Slovakia13.0
183Czechia13.0
184Hungary13.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
103Barbados103
104Venezuela104
105Timor-Leste (E. Timor)105
106Serbia106
107Zimbabwe107
108Central African Rep.108
109Benin109
110Costa Rica110
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
87Austria93.8
88Argentina93.7
89Bulgaria93.7
90Serbia93.5
91Egypt93.4
92Cape Verde93.4
93Burundi93.3
94Chile93.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
156Romania1 620
157Tunisia1 628
158Switzerland1 634
159Serbia1 644
160Cyprus1 688
161Croatia1 709
162Japan1 713
163Hungary1 759
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)44
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k44
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
75Switzerland36.2
76Croatia36.4
77Estonia37.9
78Serbia38.1
79Finland39
80Belgium39.1
81Slovenia44
82Ukraine44.8
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
143Montenegro121.75
144Bulgaria122
145Rwanda122.75
146Serbia125
147Russia126
148Lithuania126.25
149Armenia126.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
25S. Africa25
26Singapore26
27Greece27
28Serbia28
29Canada29
30Romania30
31Cyprus31
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
30Spain30
31Romania31
32Costa Rica32
33Serbia33
34Korea, S.34
35New Zealand35
36Belize36
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
81Gabon81
82Russia82
83Iran83
84Serbia84
85Mexico85
86Cambodia86
87Bangladesh87
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
42Iceland42
43Hungary43
44Kenya44
45Serbia45
46Bolivia46
47Japan47
48Czechia48
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
4Netherlands4
5Switzerland5
6Serbia6
7Belgium7
8Norway8
9Finland9
10Croatia10
11Georgia11
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
43Ukraine0.76
44Morocco0.73
45S. Africa0.73
46Serbia0.73
47Hong Kong0.73
48Tunisia0.68
49Egypt0.68
50Belarus0.67
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
106Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
107S. Africa4.7
108India4.6
109Serbia4.5
110Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
111Bahrain4.5
112Sudan4.4
113Cameroon4.4
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
85Colombia$12 762
86Dominican Rep.$12 756
87Macedonia$12 405
88Serbia$12 202
89S. Africa$12 087
90Nauru$12 058
91Iraq$11 608
92Grenada$11 502
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
81Belize57.8
82Philippines57.7
83Mongolia57.5
84Serbia57.5
85Chile57.5
86Saudi Arabia57.5
87Ecuador57.4
88Algeria57.2
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
71Colombia41
72Hungary41
73Dominican Rep.41
74Serbia42
75Bulgaria44
76Mauritius44
77Poland45
78Indonesia48
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)48
Pos.Higher is better
Score48
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
38Poland40
39Albania40
40Switzerland40
41Serbia40
42Cyprus40
43Italy40
44Greece39
45Czechia39
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/serbia.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #Serbia #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ri.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Serbia".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  45. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  46. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  47. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  48. Sources:^

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