The Human Truth Foundation

Luxembourg (Grand Duchy of Luxembourg)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #luxembourg #morals #research #science #the_environment

Luxembourg
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
StatusIndependent State
CapitalLuxembourg
Land Area 2 590km21
LocationEurope
Population0.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy81.88yrs (2017)3
GNI$62 471 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesLU, LUX, 4425
Internet Domain.lu6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+3528

1. Overview

#belgium #germany #netherlands

Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area. In January 2013, Luxembourg assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThe Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is famed for its banks but visually is mostly an undulating series of pretty wooded hills dotted with castle villages. Which European nation, just 84km long, rates among the world´s three richest countries? Remarkably the answer is Luxembourg. That´s some achievement given its wholesale destruction during WWII, a sad history remembered in war museums across the country. The country´s economic miracle started with steel but is now based particularly on banking – Belgians joke that visitors only go there to get their money out.But don´t leave Luxembourg to the bankers and Eurocrats. The capital has a fairy-tale quality to its Unesco-listed historic core, dramatically perched on a once-impregnable cliff top. Beyond, you´ll rapidly find yourself in rolling part-forested hills where a string of beguiling villages each form attractive huddles beneath medieval castles. Then there´s all the fun of the fizz in Moselle wine country and some loveable walks to take in the pretty micro-gorges of Müllerthal. All in all, this little country has plenty of surprises.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Luxembourg National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
17Japan17
18Korea, S.18
19Israel19
20Luxembourg20
21France21
22Belgium22
23Finland23
24Austria24
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
12Iceland80.3
13Canada79.8
14Austria79.3
15Luxembourg79.2
16Australia78.9
17Hong Kong77.5
18Taiwan77.5
19France76.1
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #Luxembourg #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
133Cyprus26.9
134Chile27.0
135Macedonia27.7
136Luxembourg28.3
137Armenia28.7
138Thailand29.2
139Ireland29.2
140Russia29.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
53Estonia12.6
54Nicaragua12.5
55Latvia12.3
56Luxembourg11.8
57Jordan11.3
58Kyrgyzstan11.2
59Tajikistan11.2
60Cuba10.9
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
50Canada1.69
51Colombia2.31
52Maldives1.67
53Luxembourg1.67
54Turkmenistan2.33
55Trinidad & Tobago1.63
56Montenegro1.63
57S. Africa2.39
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
11Hong Kong38.8
12San Marino37.0
13Brunei36.4
14Luxembourg35.2
15Liechtenstein34.6
16Oman28.4
17Palau28.1
18Saudi Arabia27.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
13Korea, S.82.13
14New Zealand82.03
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
17Norway81.71
18Netherlands81.71
19Austria81.58
20Andorra81.46
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
163Montenegro0.6m
164Solomon Islands0.6m
165Suriname0.5m
166Luxembourg0.5m
167Cape Verde0.5m
168Malta0.4m
169Brunei0.4m
170Bahamas0.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Luxembourg's population is predicted to rise to 637 689 by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.67. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_rights #indonesia #Luxembourg #mass_media #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
7Singapore85.2
8Netherlands83.4
9Canada82.2
10Luxembourg81.6
11Australia80.8
12Germany79.6
13Iceland79.2
14UK78.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)19
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties19
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
60Nicaragua19
61Canada19
62Kazakhstan19
63Luxembourg19
64Greece19
65Ireland19
66Lithuania18
67Moldova18
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)20
Pos.Lower is better
Rank20
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
8Australia6
9Finland9
10Netherlands10
11Luxembourg11
12Austria11
13Norway13
14Germany13
15Sweden15
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)21
Pos.Lower is better21
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
4Luxembourg668
5Andorra682
6Denmark708
7Liechtenstein735
8New Zealand838
9Iceland849
10Sweden923
11Estonia926
12Austria940
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)22
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims22
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
11Argentina0.13
12Hong Kong0.14
13Kuwait0.15
14Luxembourg0.15
15Qatar0.15
16Denmark0.16
17Paraguay0.16
18Sweden0.16
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory23. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends24. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life25. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves26.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery27. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity28. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.29. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi22, Eritrea22, Indonesia30) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery31.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #Luxembourg #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)32
Pos.Lower is better32
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
10Korea, S.0.07
11Singapore0.07
12Belgium0.07
13Luxembourg0.07
14Austria0.08
15Spain0.08
16Italy0.08
17Portugal0.09
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote33
Pos.Lower is better
Year33
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
14Germany1919
15Netherlands1919
16Ukraine1919
17Luxembourg1919
18Czechia1919
19Poland1919
20Canada1920
21USA1920
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Luxembourg is notable for its equality between the sexes and this has been a feature of the country's culture for quite some time.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
9Russia34
10Belarus34
11Latvia39
12Luxembourg39
13Hungary39
14Albania39
15Germany40
16Switzerland41
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below35:

Christian70.4%
Muslim2.3%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated26.8%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 73.1% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 39% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)36.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Luxembourg #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
4Bermuda97%
5Andorra97%
6Denmark96%
7Liechtenstein96%
8Luxembourg95%
9Netherlands94%
10Sweden93%
11Monaco93%
12UK93%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)38
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio38
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
4USA35.0
5Greece33.5
6Luxembourg32.4
7India26.8
8Portugal26.6
9Ireland26.1
10UK24.7
11Japan22.1
12France18.8
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
4Hong Kong0.12
5Mexico0.16
6Israel0.20
7Colombia0.22
8S. Africa0.22
9Japan0.22
10Philippines0.24
11Czechia0.24
12Argentina0.27
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Luxembourg #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)32
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100032
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
10Cyprus5.0
11Sweden5.7
12Norway5.9
13Luxembourg5.9
14Italy6.0
15Iceland6.1
16Libya6.2
17Finland6.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
167UK11.6
168Slovenia11.6
169Germany11.8
170Luxembourg11.9
171Ireland11.9
172France12.2
173Australia12.2
174Croatia12.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
8Canada8
9Netherlands9
10USA10
11Luxembourg11
12Finland12
13Australia13
14UAE14
15Saudi Arabia15
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
12Iran98.1
13Finland98.1
14Saudi Arabia98.0
15Luxembourg98.0
16Oman98.0
17Antigua & Barbuda98.0
18Cuba97.9
19Belgium97.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
172Czechia2 194
173Bosnia & Herzegovina2 233
174China2 250
175Luxembourg2 284
176Belgium2 353
177Slovenia2 637
178Russia2 690
179Macedonia2 732
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)44
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k44
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
45El Salvador16.5
46Kyrgyzstan17.7
47Netherlands18.6
48Luxembourg19.3
49Portugal19.6
50Singapore20.6
51India20.8
52Trinidad & Tobago21.7
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
48Singapore42
49Somaliland42
50Syria43.67
51Luxembourg43.75
52Panama45
53Haiti45
54Malawi45.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
34Israel34
35Barbados35
36Estonia36
37Luxembourg37
38USA38
39Portugal39
40Spain40
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
7Austria7
8Ireland8
9Czechia9
10Luxembourg10
11UK11
12Portugal12
13Finland13
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
97Peru97
98Czechia98
99Lithuania99
100Luxembourg100
101Niger101
102Lesotho102
103Antigua & Barbuda103
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
17Cyprus17
18Slovenia18
19New Zealand19
20Luxembourg20
21Ireland21
22Costa Rica22
23Thailand23
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
53Haiti53
54Rwanda54
55Swaziland55
56Luxembourg56
57Mali57
58El Salvador58
59Senegal59
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
25Hungary1.37
26Italy1.29
27Portugal1.28
28Luxembourg1.26
29Spain1.22
30Russia1.19
31New Zealand1.17
32Brazil1.15
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
13Panama7.3
14UAE7.2
15New Zealand7.2
16Luxembourg7.1
17USA7.1
18France7.0
19Ireland7.0
20Belgium6.9
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
4Liechtenstein$75 065
5Brunei$72 843
6Norway$67 614
7UAE$66 203
8Luxembourg$62 471
9Switzerland$56 364
10Hong Kong$54 265
11USA$53 245
12Saudi Arabia$51 320
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
4Malta80.9
5Sweden80.5
6UK79.9
7Luxembourg79.1
8Austria79.0
9Ireland78.8
10Finland78.6
11Iceland78.6
12Spain78.4
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)48
Pos.Higher is better
Score48
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
11Iceland72
12UK72
13Mexico70
14Luxembourg70
15Argentina69
16Malta63
17Andorra63
18New Zealand63
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/luxembourg.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belgium #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #germany #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #Luxembourg #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #netherlands #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/lu.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Luxembourg".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  20. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  21. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  22. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  23. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  24. McCall (1979). P180.^
  25. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  26. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  30. Klein (2004) .^
  31. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  32. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  34. Gallup (2009) .^
  35. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  36. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  37. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  38. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  39. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  45. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  46. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  47. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  48. Sources:^

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