The Human Truth Foundation

Sierra Leone (Republic of Sierra Leone)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #sierra_leone #the_environment

Sierra Leone
Republic of Sierra Leone
StatusIndependent State
CapitalFreetown
Land Area 71 620km21
LocationAfrica
Population6.1m (2011)2
Life Expectancy51.32yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 529 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesSL, SLE, 6945
Internet Domain.sl6
CurrencyLeone (SLL)7
Telephone+2328

1. Overview

Democracy is slowly being reestablished after the civil war from 1991 to 2002 that resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (about a third of the population). The military, which took over full responsibility for security following the departure of UN peacekeepers at the end of 2005, is increasingly developing as a guarantor of the country's stability. The armed forces remained on the sideline during the 2007 and 2012 national elections but still look to the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL) - a civilian UN mission - to support efforts to consolidate peace. The new government's priorities include furthering development, creating jobs, and stamping out endemic corruption.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverSierra Leone is a country on the upswing and the resilient, friendly people have set about rebuilding their nation. Today there´s much to discover, with scarcely another tourist in sight. West Africa´s secret beach destination rises from the soft waters of the Atlantic, dressed in sun-stained hues, rainforest green and the red, red roads of the north. Sierra Leone: the land so-so-named because it´s shaped like a mountain lion. Sweet Salone, the locals say.

In Freetown, colourful stilted houses recall the days when freed slaves from the Caribbean were resettled upon these shores. Some landed on the peninsula, blanketed with sands as white and soft as cotton wool.

In the north, the Loma Mountains form the highest point west of Cameroon. Further east, streams cut national parks and mangrove swamps swathe rainforest that shelter endangered species like the shy pygmy hippo.

The curtains have been drawn on the painful past, and it´s time for a new act in Sierra Leone. Join the island-hoppers and sun-seekers, swim in the clear blue waters, explore the archipelagos and crack open fresh lobster in the shade of skinny palms and rope-strung hammocks.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Sierra Leone National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
180Sierra Leone179
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
184Burundi184
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
171S. Sudan42.3
172Mozambique42.1
173Zimbabwe41.6
174Sierra Leone41.4
175Pakistan41.2
176Tuvalu40.9
177Ivory Coast40.1
178Gabon40.0
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Sierra_Leone

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
6Zambia04.8
7Eritrea04.9
8Gambia04.9
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
115Yemen4.7
116Hungary4.6
117Colombia4.6
118Sierra Leone4.6
119Philippines4.6
120Egypt4.4
121Germany4.3
122Korea, S.4.3
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
156Gambia4.73
157Mozambique4.75
158Comoros4.78
159Sierra Leone4.78
160Guinea-Bissau4.92
161Yemen4.98
162Equatorial Guinea5.02
163Guinea5.08
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
127Uganda1.9
128Chile1.9
129Turkey1.9
130Sierra Leone1.8
131Central African Rep.1.8
132Zambia1.8
133Malawi1.8
134Sudan1.7
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
183Nigeria53.06
184Angola52.70
185Chad51.90
186Ivory Coast51.89
187Central African Rep.51.46
188Sierra Leone51.32
189Lesotho50.08
190Swaziland48.94
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
105Laos6.4m
106Togo6.3m
107El Salvador6.3m
108Sierra Leone6.1m
109Nicaragua6.0m
110Denmark5.6m
111Eritrea5.6m
112Slovakia5.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Sierra Leone's population is predicted to rise to 8.532 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.78. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #Sierra_Leone #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
121Ivory Coast30.8
122Timor-Leste (E. Timor)30.8
123Togo30.4
124Sierra Leone30.2
125Mozambique30.0
126Guatemala30.0
127Mauritania29.8
128Guyana29.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
49Namibia1.80
50Ghana1.81
51Zambia1.83
52Sierra Leone1.86
53Lesotho1.86
54Morocco1.87
55Tanzania1.87
56Burkina Faso1.88
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
98Gabon16
99San Marino16
100Cambodia16
101Sierra Leone15
102Chad15
103Tanzania15
104St Vincent & Grenadines15
105Liberia15
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
130Sri Lanka130
131Morocco131
132Niger132
133Sierra Leone133
134Swaziland134
135Gabon135
136Togo136
137Bangladesh137
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
57Hong Kong2616
58Senegal2619
59Chile2624
60Sierra Leone2635
61Mauritius2647
62Serbia2659
63Croatia2661
64Central African Rep.2661
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
95Ghana0.48
96Iraq0.48
97Gabon0.48
98Sierra Leone0.50
99Uzbekistan0.52
100Armenia0.53
101Mozambique0.54
102Russia0.55
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #Sierra_Leone #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
148Gambia0.64
149Central African Rep.0.65
150Liberia0.65
151Sierra Leone0.65
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
131Burundi1961
132Malawi1961
133Paraguay1961
134Sierra Leone1961
135Zambia1962
136Uganda1962
137Monaco1962
138Algeria1962
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Sierra Leone culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
91Brunei0
92Botswana0
93Syria0
94Sierra Leone0
95Thailand0
96Togo0
97Benin0
98Tunisia0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian20.9%
Muslim78%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim 60%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs 30%37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Sierra_Leone #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
192Guinea-Bissau4%
193Chad3%
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
199Burundi2%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #parenting #population #Sierra_Leone #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
172Gambia113.0
173Madagascar116.2
174Congo, (Brazzaville)117.7
175Sierra Leone118.2
176Tanzania118.6
177Congo, DR122.6
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
136Belize8.5
137Brazil8.7
138Montenegro8.7
139Sierra Leone8.7
140Paraguay8.8
141Venezuela8.9
142USA9.2
143Sweden9.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
58Morocco58
59Cyprus59
60Guinea60
61Sierra Leone61
62Honduras62
63Lebanon63
64Lithuania64
65Cambodia65
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %41
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
131Netherlands88.1
132Paraguay88.1
133Bosnia & Herzegovina88.0
134Sierra Leone87.7
135Suriname87.2
136Ecuador86.8
137Cambodia86.5
138Namibia86.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
58Congo, (Brazzaville) 294
59Bolivia 299
60Bahamas 301
61Sierra Leone 310
62Sri Lanka 322
63Mexico 329
64Barbados 333
65St Vincent & Grenadines 338
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
59Saudi Arabia48
60Iraq50.25
61Zambia51.5
62Sierra Leone51.67
63Kyrgyzstan52
64S. Africa53.25
65Nepal53.5
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
149Venezuela149
150Libya150
151Gabon151
152Sierra Leone152
153Cambodia153
154Zambia154
155Paraguay155
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
126Oman126
127Mozambique127
128Niger128
129Sierra Leone129
130Bangladesh130
131Kazakhstan131
132Guinea132
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
148Central African Rep.148
149Bosnia & Herzegovina149
150Seychelles150
151Sierra Leone151
152Afghanistan152
153Lebanon153
154Liberia154
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
80Ecuador80
81Kuwait81
82Paraguay82
83Sierra Leone83
84Israel84
85Tanzania85
86Jamaica86
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
126Chad126
127Bahamas127
128Liberia128
129Sierra Leone129
130Kenya130
131Kazakhstan131
132Bangladesh132
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
129Syria4.1
130Egypt4.1
131Tanzania4.1
132Sierra Leone4.1
133Guinea4.0
134Congo, DR4.0
135Rwanda4.0
136Burkina Faso4.0
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
175Solomon Islands$1 561
176Gambia$1 541
177Burkina Faso$1 537
178Sierra Leone$1 529
179Ethiopia$1 523
180Eritrea$1 490
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
152Iraq43.2
153Laos42.9
154Burkina Faso42.8
155Sierra Leone42.5
156Gambia42.4
157Congo, (Brazzaville)42.4
158Bosnia & Herzegovina41.8
159Togo41.8
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)46
Pos.Higher is better
Score46
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
121Benin1
122Niger1
123Bahrain-2
124Sierra Leone-3
125Grenada-5
126Dominica-5
127Namibia-5
128Kiribati-5
q=196.
IQ (2006)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
130Gambia66
131Zimbabwe66
132Senegal66
133Sierra Leone64
134Mozambique64
135Ethiopia64
136Central African Rep.64
137Congo, (Brazzaville)64
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/sierra_leone.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #Sierra_Leone #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sl.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Sierra Leone".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)47.^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  40. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  41. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  42. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  44. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  45. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  46. Sources:^
  47. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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