The Human Truth Foundation

El Salvador (Republic of El Salvador)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #el_salvador #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

El Salvador
Republic of El Salvador
StatusIndependent State
CapitalSan Salvador
Land Area 20 720km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, Central America
Population6.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy73.27yrs (2017)3
GNI$7 732 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesSV, SLV, 2225
Internet Domain.sv6
CurrencyDollar (USD)7
Telephone+5038

1. Overview

#spain

El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverSurf´s up in El Salvador, a tiny Central American nation finally emerging as a hot travel destination after a not-so-distant civil war and internal hardships kept it off the tourist radar. El Salvador is Central America´s smallest, most densely populated country, with the region´s largest economy and its fewest foreign tourists. Once only a trickle of headstrong surfers and foreign correspondents passed through its rigorous border posts, but now a new breed of traveler is pushing through in search of an authentic experience in an undervisited land.

El Salvador is a perennial tease. Glimpses of tropical paradise, lush tracts of pre-industrial national park lands, colonial splendor astride pristine volcanic lakes, searing colors and a fierce creative vision sit quietly in the shadows of an indomitable local pride. Here you´ll find a glorious coastline, a buzzing culture-clad capital, hard-core war tourism and small-town charm by the plaza-load.

Salvadorans themselves are increasingly content to return home from prolonged stints abroad, the once enviable rite of passage now cut short by global economics and a growing sentiment that home might just be where the fresh start is.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. El Salvador National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
114Palestine114
115Vietnam115
116Philippines116
117El Salvador117
118Bolivia118
119S. Africa119
120Kyrgyzstan120
121Iraq121
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
95Sri Lanka52.5
96Russia52.4
97Azerbaijan52.0
98El Salvador51.9
99Vietnam51.9
100Nepal51.8
101Suriname51.7
102Belarus51.7
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #El_Salvador #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
105Suriname16.2
106Grenada16.2
107Brunei16.2
108El Salvador17.3
109Panama17.7
110Korea, N.17.8
111Turkey18.0
112Vietnam18.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
27Fiji21.3
28Portugal20.8
29Lesotho20.5
30El Salvador20.5
31Micronesia19.7
32Belarus18.4
33Eritrea18.0
34Croatia17.1
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
26Algeria2.17
27Oman2.17
28Argentina2.18
29El Salvador2.18
30Grenada2.18
31Costa Rica1.81
32Qatar2.20
33Morocco2.20
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
159Bangladesh0.7
160Mexico0.7
161Congo, DR0.7
162El Salvador0.7
163Ethiopia0.6
164Romania0.6
165Philippines0.5
166India0.4
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
94Lithuania73.50
95Honduras73.33
96Seychelles73.30
97El Salvador73.27
98Palestine73.07
99St Vincent & Grenadines73.04
100Paraguay73.00
101Tonga72.99
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
104Jordan6.5m
105Laos6.4m
106Togo6.3m
107El Salvador6.3m
108Sierra Leone6.1m
109Nicaragua6.0m
110Denmark5.6m
111Eritrea5.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

El Salvador's population is predicted to rise to 7.093 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.18. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #El_Salvador #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
81Jamaica38.8
82Burkina Faso38.8
83China38.4
84El Salvador38.0
85Suriname38.0
86Mongolia38.0
87Liberia38.0
88Trinidad & Tobago37.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
112Jamaica2.22
113Benin2.23
114Armenia2.24
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
71Malta18
72Tunisia18
73Niger18
74El Salvador18
75Mongolia17
76Timor-Leste (E. Timor)17
77Estonia17
78Turkmenistan17
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
55Armenia55
56Macedonia55
57Suriname55
58El Salvador58
59Ghana59
60Jamaica60
61Haiti61
62Fiji61
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
34Slovenia2049
35Spain2050
36France2160
37El Salvador2286
38Latvia2289
39Botswana2291
40Papua New Guinea2297
41Romania2305
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
45Ecuador0.24
46Italy0.24
47Morocco0.24
48El Salvador0.25
49Portugal0.25
50Peru0.26
51Guyana0.26
52Jamaica0.26
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#El_Salvador #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
82Mauritius0.38
83Lebanon0.38
84Rwanda0.38
85El Salvador0.38
86Peru0.39
87Sri Lanka0.39
88Ecuador0.39
89Colombia0.39
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
125Tonga1960
126Cyprus1960
127Gambia1960
128El Salvador1961
129Rwanda1961
130Mauritania1961
131Burundi1961
132Malawi1961
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

El Salvador has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
50Turkey82
51Ecuador82
52Colombia83
53El Salvador83
54Romania84
55Honduras84
56Peru84
57Iraq84
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
82Venezuela1
83Peru1
84Guatemala1
85El Salvador1
86Panama1
87Somalia0
88Sri Lanka0
89Burundi0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian88.2%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated11%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 57.1%, Protestant 21.2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.9%, Mormon 0.7%, other religions 2.3%, none 16.8% (2003 est.)38.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)39, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for El Salvador states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief; however, Article 296 of the penal code imposes criminal sentences of six months to two years on those who publicly offend or insult the religious beliefs of others, or damage or destroy religious objects. If such acts are carried out with and for the purpose of publicity, sentences increase to one to three years in prison. Repeat offenders face prison sentences of three to eight years.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)40

Links:

7. The Internet

#El_Salvador #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
121Peru41%
122Guyana40%
123Grenada39%
124El Salvador38%
125Bhutan37%
126Mongolia36%
127India35%
128Kyrgyzstan34%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)42
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio42
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
87US Virgin Islands0.0
88Mauritius0.0
89Botswana0.0
90El Salvador0.0
91Kenya0.0
92Cameroon0.0
93Kyrgyzstan0.0
94Cambodia0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #El_Salvador #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
128Argentina63.8
129Laos64.1
130Honduras65.0
131El Salvador65.2
132S. Sudan65.9
133Belize65.9
134Ghana66.8
135Brazil67.0
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)43
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita43
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
52Kiribati3.0
53Papua New Guinea3.0
54Fiji3.0
55El Salvador3.2
56Micronesia3.3
57Gambia3.4
58Nauru3.5
59Mauritius3.6
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
39Portugal39
40Brazil40
41Iceland41
42El Salvador42
43Russia43
44Turkey44
45Mexico45
46Malaysia46
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)45
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %45
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
99Latvia92.8
100Romania92.7
101France92.6
102El Salvador92.4
103Swaziland92.4
104Palau92.4
105Vietnam92.3
106Denmark92.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
53Togo 250
54Kenya 257
55Mauritius 261
56El Salvador 280
57Comoros 289
58Congo, (Brazzaville) 294
59Bolivia 299
60Bahamas 301
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)47
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k47
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
42Argentina15.6
43Thailand15.8
44Australia16.4
45El Salvador16.5
46Kyrgyzstan17.7
47Netherlands18.6
48Luxembourg19.3
49Portugal19.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
113Ukraine100
114Albania101.25
115Latvia101.25
116El Salvador101.25
117Mauritania101.25
118Jordan102
119Japan102
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
118Rwanda118
119Guatemala119
120Niger120
121El Salvador121
122Dominican Rep.122
123Oman123
124Chad124
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
96Mongolia96
97Madagascar97
98Bolivia98
99El Salvador99
100Nicaragua100
101Russia101
102Vietnam102
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
131Syria131
132Belarus132
133Portugal133
134El Salvador134
135Macedonia135
136Armenia136
137Dominica137
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
144Rwanda144
145Chad145
146Central African Rep.146
147El Salvador147
148Bahamas148
149Marshall Islands149
150Burundi150
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
55Swaziland55
56Luxembourg56
57Mali57
58El Salvador58
59Senegal59
60Kyrgyzstan60
61Qatar61
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
119Honduras0.04
120Guatemala0.04
121Bahrain0.04
122Colombia0.04
123Iraq0.03
124El Salvador0.03
125China0.03
126Lesotho0.01
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
24Korea, S.6.9
25Mexico6.8
26Brazil6.8
27El Salvador6.7
28Cyprus6.7
29Thailand6.7
30Saudi Arabia6.7
31Germany6.7
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
111Fiji$8 245
112Armenia$8 189
113Paraguay$8 182
114El Salvador$7 732
115Swaziland$7 522
116Cuba$7 455
117Belize$7 375
118Ukraine$7 361
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
103Suriname54.2
104Sao Tome & Principe54.0
105Paraguay53.9
106El Salvador53.9
107Fiji53.1
108Turkey53.0
109Ukraine52.9
110Guatemala52.3
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)51
Pos.Higher is better
Score51
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
52Bosnia & Herzegovina35
53Georgia35
54Nicaragua35
55El Salvador35
56Kosovo35
57Thailand34
58Bulgaria33
59Fiji32
q=196.
IQ (2006)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
97Egypt81
98Honduras81
99Nicaragua81
100El Salvador80
101Guatemala79
102Sri Lanka79
103Nepal78
104Mauritania76
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 20
http://www.humantruth.info/el_salvador.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #El_Salvador #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #spain #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

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Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
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(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
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Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/es.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "El Salvador".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)52.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. IHEU (2012) .^
  40. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  41. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  42. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  44. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  45. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  46. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  47. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  48. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  49. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  50. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  51. Sources:^
  52. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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