The Human Truth Foundation

Australia (Commonwealth of Australia)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#australia

Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index12nd best
CapitalCanberra
Land Area7 682 300km21
LocationAustralasia
Population22.9m (2011)2
Life Expectancy82.54yrs (2017)3
GNI$42 822 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesAU, AUS, 365
Internet Domain.au6
CurrencyDollar (AUD)7
Telephone+618

1. Overview

Prehistoric settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia at least 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession of the east coast in the name of Great Britain (all of Australia was claimed as British territory in 1829 with the creation of the colony of Western Australia). Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the Allied effort in World Wars I and II. In recent decades, Australia has become an internationally competitive, advanced market economy due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s and its location in one of the fastest growing regions of the world economy. Long-term concerns include ageing of the population, pressure on infrastructure, and environmental issues such as floods, droughts, and bushfires. Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth, making it particularly vulnerable to the challenges of climate change. Australia is home to 10 per cent of the world's biodiversity, and a great number of its flora and fauna exist nowhere else in the world. In January 2013, Australia assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverAustralia - the sixth-largest country on this lonely planet - is dazzlingly diverse: a sing-along medley of mountains, deserts, reefs, forests, beaches and multicultural melting-pot cities. Most Australians live along the coast, and most of these folks live in cities. In fact, Australia is the 18th-most urbanised country in the world. Sydney is a glamorous collusion of beaches, boutiques and bars. Melbourne is all arts, alleyways and Australian Rules football. Brisbane is a subtropical town on the way up; Adelaide has festive grace and pubby poise. Boomtown Perth breathes west-coast optimism; Canberra transcends political agendas. And the tropical northern frontier town of Darwin and chilly southern sandstone city of Hobart couldn´t be more different. [...] Australia's national parks and secluded corners are custommade for camping trips down the dirt road.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Australia National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
4Germany4
5Denmark5
6Singapore5
7Netherlands7
8Ireland8
9Iceland9
10Canada10
11USA10
12Hong Kong12
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
9Luxembourg77.7
10New Zealand77.4
11UK77.1
12Australia76.8
13Netherlands76.7
14Ireland76.5
15Canada75.9
16Hong Kong75.8
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
142Montenegro30.0
143Belarus30.3
144Ukraine30.8
145Australia31.3
146Slovakia31.6
147Albania31.8
148Norway32.2
149Iceland32.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
152Uganda2.2
153Sudan2.2
154Chad2.1
155Australia2.1
156Serbia2.0
157Venezuela1.8
158S. Africa1.7
159Iran1.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
16Oman28.4
17Palau28.1
18Saudi Arabia27.8
19Australia25.7
20Antigua & Barbuda23.6
21Switzerland23.2
22New Zealand22.4
23Canada21.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
4Singapore83.21
5Switzerland83.13
6Spain82.77
7Iceland82.72
8Israel82.56
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
48Ghana25.5m
49Korea, N.24.6m
50Mozambique24.5m
51Australia22.9m
52Madagascar21.9m
53Romania21.4m
54Sri Lanka21.2m
55Syria21.1m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Australia's population is predicted to rise to 27.77 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.96. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
21Japan0.12
22Cyprus0.12
23Greece0.12
24Australia0.12
25Lithuania0.12
26Ireland0.13
27Czech Rep.0.13
28UK0.13
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
4Norway1913
5Denmark1915
6Iceland1915
7Russia1917
8Latvia1918
9Estonia1918
10Kyrgyzstan1918
11Austria1919
12Slovakia1919
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Australia is on the way towards ending gender inequality and has been striving towards this end for quite some time.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #buddhism #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #universalism

Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better20
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
17Korea, S.30
18Finland28
19Russia27
20Australia25
21Taiwan24
22New Zealand22
23Canada22
24Latvia20
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below21:

Christian67.3%
Muslim2.4%
Hindu1.4%
Buddhist2.7%
Folk Religion0.7%
Jew0.5%
Unaffiliated24.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Protestant 27.4% (Anglican 18.7%, Uniting Church 5.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3%), Catholic 25.8%, Eastern Orthodox 2.7%, other Christian 7.9%, Buddhist 2.1%, Muslim 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 11.3%, none 18.7% (2006 Census)22.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Australia23. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 13%. More people don't know what to believe (30%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (24%). Also, 2% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 9% believe in reincarnation.

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
24
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
25
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
26Switzerland87%
27France86%
28Korea, S.86%
29Australia85%
30Bahamas85%
31Puerto Rico83%
32Singapore83%
33Slovakia83%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio26
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
18Norway14.7
19Australia14.6
20Trinidad & Tobago14.5
21Finland14.1
22Brazil13.9
23Netherlands10.5
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
27
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
21Poland0.55
22Switzerland0.55
23Korea, S.0.56
24Australia0.63
25Libya0.63
26Qatar0.65
27Chile0.66
28Guinea-Bissau0.67
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
44Bahrain13.5
45Malaysia13.6
46Latvia13.6
47Australia14.1
48UK14.6
49Sri Lanka14.8
50Micronesia15.0
51Tonga15.2
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita28
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
170Luxembourg11.9
171Ireland11.9
172France12.2
173Australia12.2
174Croatia12.2
175Korea, S.12.3
176Latvia12.3
177Finland12.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %29
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
105Vietnam92.3
106Denmark92.3
107Azerbaijan92.2
108Australia92.1
109Barbados92.1
110Ghana91.7
111Lesotho91.7
112Malawi91.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
30
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
115Turkmenistan 925
116Chile 930
117Ireland 954
118Australia 956
119Mongolia 957
120Bahrain 969
121France 993
122Brunei1 023
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)
Lower is better

Per 100k31
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
41Spain15.3
42Argentina15.6
43Thailand15.8
44Australia16.4
45El Salvador16.5
46Kyrgyzstan17.7
47Netherlands18.6
48Luxembourg19.3
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties32
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
23Azerbaijan21
24Bosnia & Herzegovina21
25Bolivia21
26Australia21
27France21
28Senegal21
29Hungary20
30Czech Rep.20
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank33
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
4Ireland4
5Denmark5
6UK6
7Canada6
8Australia6
9Finland9
10Netherlands10
11Luxembourg11
12Austria11
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
34
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
23Slovakia1325
24Cyprus1383
25Cape Verde1433
26Australia1524
27Uruguay1592
28Portugal1675
29UK1689
30Ghana1727
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%35
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
11Czech Rep.13
12Canada14
13New Zealand14
14Australia14
15Norway15
16Ghana15
17Finland15
18Brazil16
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
36
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
37
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
19Bhutan1.48
20Malaysia1.49
21Mauritius1.49
22Australia1.49
23Singapore1.52
24Poland1.52
25Spain1.55
26Slovakia1.59
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
12Belgium2.46
13Slovenia2.39
14France2.26
15Australia2.25
16Singapore2.00
17Czech Rep.2.00
18Netherlands1.97
19Iceland1.89
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
38
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
4Venezuela7.5
5Sweden7.5
6Switzerland7.5
7Austria7.5
8Canada7.4
9Australia7.4
10Israel7.4
11Finland7.4
12Costa Rica7.3
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
18Denmark$44 519
19Ireland$43 798
20Austria$43 609
21Australia$42 822
22Canada$42 582
23Belgium$41 243
24Finland$38 868
25France$38 085
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
39
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
47Maldives65.9
48Fiji65.9
49Philippines65.7
50Australia65.7
51Morocco65.6
52Belarus65.4
53Malaysia65.0
54Slovenia65.0
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score40
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
50Hungary35
51Liechtenstein35
52Jersey35
53Australia32
54Cuba30
55Montenegro30
56Albania30
57Micronesia30
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better41
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
...
23Hungary98
24USA98
25Spain98
26Australia98
27Denmark98
28Latvia98
29Czech Rep.98
30Andorra98
q=138.

10. Christian Child Abuse in Australia42

#australia

There has been a lot of historical abuse of children by individual Christian clergy over previous decades, but also, systematic abuse of children by Christian institutions in Australia. Well after the revelations of the Catholic Church's horrendous activities in Australia in the 1930s to 1960s, continued cases have come to light. So many that in 2008 July, Pope Benedict XVI has himself gone to Australia to apologize for the behaviour of his priesthood there. The Christian Brothers institute saw multiple complaints between 1919 and the 1960s, and a report finds that one of the boys who reported the abuse was physically beaten for it - "the physical abuse at the institutions contributed to a culture where boys were reluctant to report abuse for fear of consequences" and the institution moved 'Brothers' from one place to another when accusations surfaced, but did not attempt to deal with the abuse and then when it all went to concern, they were mostly concerned with avoiding financial costs43.

More cases have emerged amongst Priests from various denominations. Australian Catholic Priest Brian Joseph Spillane finds himself accused of seemingly endless abuses of teens and pre-teens in various circumstances (i.e., in the confessional box and at a Catholic boarding school), between 1971 and 1990. The Salvation Army in Australia is another Christian organisation that has fostered sexual abusers - "boys who attempted to report abuse were punished or accused of lying" according to the Royal Commission44. In another case, a Pastor from a (non-Catholic) Protestant church was caught out in the 1990s. The RCC in Australia, in order to limit further damage, has drawn up guidelines to prevent further abuse. "Roman Catholic bishops have sought to ban their priests from having any private contact with children. Guidelines drawn up with the approval of the Vatican mean that confessionals have to be fitted with glass viewing panels. Priests are also banned from seeing any child alone with the door closed"45.

[ + More on Cases in Australia + ]

Some news excerpts:

Australia's Roman Catholic Church publicly apologised on Thursday to British and Maltese child migrants who suffered abuse including rape, whippings and slave labour in religious institutions. [...] Some children were told that were going on a holiday. [...] Two church bodies said the programme, in which more than 1,000 British and 310 Maltese children were sent to Australian Catholic schools between the late 1930s and 1960s, resulted in "suffering and dislocation". Many children were raped, whipped, stripped of their names and forced to scramble for food thrown on the floor. Some children were also made to do hard labour, including construction work, at some schools.

The inquiry found that migrant children were subjected to systematic abuse in religious schools in Australia, New Zealand and other countries.

"Australian Church apologises to child migrants" (BBC News, 2001)

MOLESTING girls in the confessional box and raping hypnotised boys was part of a pattern of "rampant pedophilia" by a former priest accused of sexually assaulting youngsters, a Sydney court has been told. Brian Joseph Spillane, a former chaplain at St Stanislaus College in Bathurst, [...] has been charged with an additional 29 counts of indecently assaulting 11 males and females, bringing the total number of charges against the former priest to 146. [...] Ms Walker said Mr Spillane sexually assaulted both boys and girls between 1971 and 1990 during his time at both St Stanislaus boys' school in NSW's central west and St Anthony's parish at Marsfield, in Sydney's north. [...] Mr Spillane is accused of serious offences including anal intercourse and group rape at the Bathurst boarding school, Ms Walker said. Teachers at St Stanislaus "hypnotised boys for the purpose of having sexual intercourse with them'', she told the court.

The Australian (2009 Sep 01)

A pastor from a South Australian fundamentalist church has been jailed for eight-and-a-half years after admitting he had sex with two of his teenage daughters [...and] pleaded guilty to seven counts each of incest and unlawful sexual intercourse. The court heard that the man had sex with his daughters for nearly a decade in the 1990s at the family property. The man later told the court he had sex with the girls to "educate" them on how to be good wives - not for his own gratification.

"Fundamentalist Christian pastor jailed for child abuse & incest" (2007 Aug 30)

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 16
http://www.humantruth.info/australia.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #australia #buddhism #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #universalism

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

BBC News. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a UK mainstream public-service mass media broadcaster, known to be reasonably accurate and responsible with its journalism.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Furedi, Frank. Professor of sociology at the University of Kent, UK.
(2002) Paranoid Parenting: Why ignoring the experts may be best for your child. Paperback book. Published by Chicago Review Press, Chicago, USA. This edition is "substantially different" from the 2001 UK version.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good..

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Australia" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  21. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  22. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  23. Ipsos (2011) .^
  24. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  25. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  26. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  27. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  28. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  29. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  30. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  31. UN (2013) World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  32. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  33. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  34. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  35. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  36. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  37. ^
  38. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  39. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  40. Higher is better. Sources:^
  41. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^
  42. Added to this page on 2015 Mar 04.^
  43. ABC News article "Royal commission finds WA Christian Brothers failed to prevent child sexual abuse" (2014 Dec 19).^
  44. BBC News (2015 Mar 18) article "Australian Salvation Army 'exposed boys to sexual abuse'".^
  45. See the Telegraph (1997 Sep 26), reported in Frank Furedi (2002) p38.^

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