The Human Truth Foundation

Chile (Republic of Chile)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #chile #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #pentecostalism #research #science #the_environment

Chile
Republic of Chile
StatusIndependent State
CapitalSantiago (administrative/judicial) and Valparaiso (legislative)
Land Area 743 532km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population17.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy81.96yrs (2017)3
GNI$21 665 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCL, CHL, 1525
Internet Domain.cl6
CurrencyPeso (CLP)7
Telephone+568

1. Overview

#bolivia #peru #spain

Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were brought under central government control. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverChile is nature on a colossal scale, but travel here is surprisingly easy. Your trip can be as hard-core or as pampered as you like, but you´ll always feel welcome. Spindly Chile stretches 4300km - over half the continent - from the driest desert in the world to massive glacial fields. In between the Andes and the Pacific, the landscape is dotted with volcanoes, geysers, beaches, lakes, rivers, steppe and countless islands. What´s on offer? Everything. In Chile, adventure is what happens on the way to having an adventure: explore sweeping desert solitude, craggy Andean summits, the lush forests of the fjords, first-class wine regions, up-and-coming surfing hot spots, even the exotic getaway of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Of course, Chile is more than its striking geography: its far-flung location has fired the imagination of literary heavyweights and has been known to make poets out of bartenders and dreamers out of presidents. Closer borders have fostered intimacy with the Chilean people and rituals such as the sharing of maté tea and the welcoming attitude of buena onda (good vibes) are integral to the fabric of local life.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Chile National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
35Cyprus33
36Poland36
37Lithuania37
38Chile38
39Saudi Arabia38
40Slovakia40
41Portugal41
42UAE42
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
33Cyprus66.5
34Malta66.2
35Uruguay66.0
36Chile65.5
37Latvia65.2
38Costa Rica65.0
39Slovakia63.5
40Lithuania63.4
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Chile #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
131Mauritius25.9
132Uruguay26.8
133Cyprus26.9
134Chile27.0
135Macedonia27.7
136Luxembourg28.3
137Armenia28.7
138Thailand29.2
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
127Norway3.8
128Bahrain3.7
129Gambia3.7
130Chile3.7
131Peru3.7
132Czechia3.6
133Mauritania3.5
134Canada3.5
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
20UK1.87
21New Zealand2.15
22Azerbaijan2.16
23Chile1.84
24Bangladesh2.16
25Belgium1.83
26Algeria2.17
27Oman2.17
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
125Comoros2.0
126Mozambique1.9
127Uganda1.9
128Chile1.9
129Turkey1.9
130Sierra Leone1.8
131Central African Rep.1.8
132Zambia1.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
12Canada82.22
13Korea, S.82.13
14New Zealand82.03
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
17Norway81.71
18Netherlands81.71
19Austria81.58
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
57Cameroon20.5m
58Angola20.2m
59Burkina Faso17.5m
60Chile17.4m
61Netherlands16.7m
62Niger16.6m
63Kazakhstan16.4m
64Mali16.3m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Chile's population is predicted to rise to 19.54 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.84. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#Chile #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Chile performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. Chile does the second-best in its nominal commitment to Human Rights18. It comes in the top 20 in eliminating modern slavery19. It does better than average in fighting corruption20, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms21, its Global Peace Index rating22, supporting press freedom23, opposing gender inequality24 and in LGBT equality25. Chile does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions26. In 2017, the courts continued to prosecute those responsible for human rights violations during Augusto Pinochet's dictatorship from 1973 to 199027. But there are still ongoing issues with the justice system including too much mistreatment and overcrowding27. Inhumane restrictions on family planning services (including the end of the total ban on abortion) were lightened in 2017, including access for LGBT folk27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)28
Pos.Lower is better
%28
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
29Ireland54
30USA65
31Argentina66
32Chile70
33Croatia70
34Singapore70
35Montenegro71
36Greece71
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)29
Pos.Higher is better29
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
65Jamaica3
66India3
67Angola2
68Chile2
69Central African Rep.2
70Tajikistan2
71Turkmenistan2
72Indonesia2
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below30:

Christian89.4%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion1.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated8.6%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 91.3% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 70% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 70%, Evangelical 15.1%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other Christian 1%, other 4.6%, none 8.3% (2002 census)31.

A Pew Forum poll in 2006 found that nearly half or more of all Protestants in several countries, including Chile, identified as Pentecostal Christians32.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)33, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Chile states:

Church and state are officially separate; however, anti-incitement laws exist for religious groups. A 2002 law on freedom of expression and information and the press prohibits the use of any means of social communication to publish or transmit information designed to promote hatred of or hostility towards persons or groups based on religion and establishes fines for infractions. Publicly subsidized schools are required to offer religious education two teaching hours per week through high school; although parents may decide to have their children omit religious education. Religious instruction in public schools is almost exclusively Catholic, although the Ministry of Education approved curricula for 14 other religious groups. Schools must teach the religion requested by the parents.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)34

Links:

6. The Internet

#Chile #internet #it_security #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
38Hungary80%
39Kuwait80%
40Malta80%
41Chile78%
42Lithuania77%
43Latvia76%
44Lebanon76%
45Croatia74%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)36
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio36
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
83Macedonia0.0
84Pakistan0.0
85Paraguay0.0
86Chile0.0
87US Virgin Islands0.0
88Mauritius0.0
89Botswana0.0
90El Salvador0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)37
Pos.Lower is better37
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
24Australia0.63
25Libya0.63
26Qatar0.65
27Chile0.66
28Guinea-Bissau0.67
29Uzbekistan0.69
30Moldova0.71
31Zambia0.76
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Chile #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)24
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100024
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
103Cuba45.6
104Suriname46.1
105Timor-Leste (E. Timor)46.6
106Chile47.8
107Solomon Islands48.4
108Peru49.1
109Indonesia49.6
110Colombia50.2
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita38
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
144Cyprus9.2
145Burundi9.3
146Argentina9.3
147Chile9.6
148Rwanda9.8
149Uganda9.8
150Netherlands9.9
151Nigeria10.1
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
88Syria88
89Azerbaijan89
90Uganda90
91Chile91
92Tunisia92
93Bahrain93
94Philippines94
95Bosnia & Herzegovina95
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %40
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
91Egypt93.4
92Cape Verde93.4
93Burundi93.3
94Chile93.3
95Georgia93.1
96New Zealand92.9
97Nauru92.9
98USA92.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
113Iran 869
114Thailand 895
115Turkmenistan 925
116Chile 930
117Ireland 954
118Australia 956
119Mongolia 957
120Bahrain 969
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)42
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k42
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
51India20.8
52Trinidad & Tobago21.7
53USA22.2
54Chile22.4
55Canada22.7
56Iceland23.5
57New Zealand23.6
58Ireland23.7
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
55Israel45.25
56Taiwan46
57Belgium47.25
58Chile47.25
59Saudi Arabia48
60Iraq50.25
61Zambia51.5
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
71Burundi71
72Tunisia72
73Timor-Leste (E. Timor)73
74Chile74
75Argentina75
76Costa Rica76
77Jamaica77
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
48Australia48
49Seychelles49
50Grenada50
51Chile51
52Bahamas52
53UAE53
54Thailand54
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
16Costa Rica16
17Hungary17
18Japan18
19Chile19
20Kazakhstan20
21Thailand21
22Algeria22
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
23Thailand23
24Poland24
25S. Africa25
26Chile26
27Panama27
28Portugal28
29USA29
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
70Tunisia70
71Montenegro71
72Ukraine72
73Chile73
74Macedonia74
75Oman75
76Dominican Rep.76
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
70Tanzania0.38
71Romania0.38
72Montenegro0.38
73Chile0.38
74Ghana0.38
75Moldova0.35
76Ecuador0.34
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.33
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
32Trinidad & Tobago6.7
33Kuwait6.6
34Qatar6.6
35Chile6.6
36Spain6.5
37Singapore6.5
38Belize6.5
39Argentina6.4
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
51Latvia$22 589
52St Kitts & Nevis$22 436
53Kazakhstan$22 093
54Chile$21 665
55Bahamas$21 565
56Equatorial Guinea$21 517
57Argentina$20 945
58Antigua & Barbuda$20 907
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
82Philippines57.7
83Mongolia57.5
84Serbia57.5
85Chile57.5
86Saudi Arabia57.5
87Ecuador57.4
88Algeria57.2
89Cape Verde56.9
q=180.
IQ (2006)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
55Albania90
56Croatia90
57Kyrgyzstan90
58Chile90
59Costa Rica89
60Laos89
61Ecuador88
62Mexico88
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 18
http://www.humantruth.info/chile.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #bolivia #buddhism #charity #Chile #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #pentecostalism #peru #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #spain #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Nov 06.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

Terence O. Ranger
(2008, Ed.) Evangelical Christianity And Democracy in Africa. Published by Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Part of the series of books on Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in the Global South (series editor Timothy Samuel Shah).

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ci.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Chile".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  19. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  20. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. ^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  25. Sources:^
  26. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  27. Human Rights Watch (2018). p132-136.^
  28. Gallup (2009) .^
  29. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)46.^
  30. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  31. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  32. Terence (2008). In the preface written by Timothy Shah.^
  33. IHEU (2012) .^
  34. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  35. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  36. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  37. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  38. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  39. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  40. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  41. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  42. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  43. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  44. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  45. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  46. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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