The Human Truth Foundation

Canada

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#canada

Canada
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index15th best
CapitalOttawa
Land Area9 093 510km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas
Population34.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy82.22yrs (2017)3
GNI$42 582 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCA, CAN, 1245
Internet Domain.ca6
CurrencyDollar (CAD)7
Telephone+18

1. Overview

#UK #USA

A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverCanada is more than its hulking mountain, craggy-coast good looks: it also cooks extraordinary meals, rocks cool culture and unfurls wild, moosespotting road trips. The globe´s second-biggest country has an endless variety of landscapes. Sky-high mountains, glinting glaciers, spectral rainforests and remote beaches are all here, spread across six times zones. It´s the backdrop for plenty of ah-inspiring moments – and for a big provincial menagerie. That´s big as in polar bears, grizzly bears, whales and, everyone´s favorite, moose.

The arts are an integral part of Canada´s cultural landscape, from the International Fringe Theater Festival in Edmonton to mega museums such as Ottawa´s National Gallery. Montreal´s Jazz Festival and Toronto´s starstudded Film Festival draw global crowds.

Sip a café au lait and tear into a flaky croissant at a sidewalk bistro in Montréal; head to an Asian night market and slurp noodles in Vancouver; join a wild-fiddling Celtic party on Cape Breton Island; kayak between rainforest-cloaked aboriginal villages on Haida Gwaii: Canada is incredibly diverse across its breadth and within its cities. You´ll hear it in the music, see it in the arts and taste it in the cuisine.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Canada National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
7Netherlands7
8Ireland8
9Iceland9
10Canada10
11USA10
12Hong Kong12
13New Zealand13
14Sweden14
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
12Australia76.8
13Netherlands76.7
14Ireland76.5
15Canada75.9
16Hong Kong75.8
17Taiwan75.4
18Austria75.3
19Japan73.5
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
168Estonia37.9
169Belgium38.1
170Switzerland38.3
171Canada38.5
172Croatia39.7
173Malta39.9
174France40.5
175Austria40.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
131Peru3.7
132Czech Rep.3.6
133Mauritania3.5
134Canada3.5
135Algeria3.4
136Sweden3.4
137Ghana3.4
138Nepal3.3
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
47Cape Verde2.29
48Estonia1.71
49UAE1.70
50Canada1.69
51Colombia2.31
52Maldives1.67
53Luxembourg1.67
54Turkmenistan2.33
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
20Antigua & Barbuda23.6
21Switzerland23.2
22New Zealand22.4
23Canada21.3
24Ireland19.6
25Kazakhstan19.5
26Gabon18.9
27Lebanon17.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
13Korea, S.82.13
14New Zealand82.03
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
34Algeria36.5m
35Uganda35.6m
36Sudan35.0m
37Canada34.7m
38Iraq33.7m
39Afghanistan33.4m
40Morocco32.6m
41Nepal31.0m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Canada's population is predicted to rise to 39.85 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.69. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
15Spain0.08
16Italy0.08
17Portugal0.09
18Canada0.10
19France0.10
20Israel0.10
21Japan0.12
22Cyprus0.12
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
17Luxembourg1919
18Czech Rep.1919
19Poland1919
20Canada1920
21USA1920
22Albania1920
23Lithuania1921
24Sweden1921
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Canada is notable for its equality between the sexes.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #buddhism #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #universalism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%20
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
16Switzerland41
17Uruguay41
18Lithuania42
19Canada42
20Korea, S.43
21Kazakhstan43
22Ukraine46
23Slovenia47
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better21
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
20Australia25
21Taiwan24
22New Zealand22
23Canada22
24Latvia20
25Ukraine20
26Mongolia20
27Austria18
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below22:

Christian69%
Muslim2.1%
Hindu1.4%
Buddhist0.8%
Folk Religion1.2%
Jew1%
Unaffiliated23.7%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 75.5% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 42% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)23.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Canada24. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 18%. More people don't know what to believe (25%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (18%). Also, 3% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 8% believe in reincarnation.

Freedom of Thought: The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Canada states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However six of the ten provinces provide partial or full funding to religious schools. Most of these publicly funded religious schools are Roman Catholic. Although five provinces allow other denominations to run publicly funded schools. Publicly funded religious schools can discriminate on religious grounds in hiring and in accepting students. Around 16 percent of the Canadian population claims no religious affiliation, yet in the vast low-population expanses of Canada, the religious school may well be the only public school within a reasonable distance for many non-religious students.

Ontario is the only province that funds Catholic religious education while providing no funding for other religious schools. One third of Ontario's public schools (around 1,400) are Catholic schools, and they receive 100% of their funding from the government. Catholic schools discriminate against non-Catholics in hiring staff. Catholic schools can also exclude non-Catholic children.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)25

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
26
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
18Japan91%
19New Zealand89%
20USA89%
21Canada89%
22Belgium89%
23Czech Rep.88%
24Germany88%
25Aruba88%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio27
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
10UK24.7
11Japan22.1
12France18.8
13Canada18.3
14Peru18.3
15Ecuador18.2
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
28
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
40Kuwait0.93
41Saudi Arabia0.93
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
29France8.9
30Croatia9.5
31Israel9.7
32Canada9.8
33Kuwait9.8
34Portugal9.9
35Czech Rep.9.9
36Ireland10.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita29
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
149Uganda9.8
150Netherlands9.9
151Nigeria10.1
152Canada10.2
153Estonia10.3
154Kazakhstan10.3
155Austria10.3
156Greece10.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
139Dominican Rep.86.3
140Panama86.1
141Belarus85.3
142Canada85.2
143Guatemala85.2
144Togo84.3
145Zambia84.2
146Congo, (Brazzaville)83.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
31
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
128Moldova1 114
129Lithuania1 124
130Uruguay1 135
131Canada1 154
132Albania1 177
133Egypt1 188
134Vietnam1 215
135Iraq1 227
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)
Lower is better

Per 100k32
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
52Trinidad & Tobago21.7
53USA22.2
54Chile22.4
55Canada22.7
56Iceland23.5
57New Zealand23.6
58Ireland23.7
59Norway23.8
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties33
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
58Finland19
59Netherlands19
60Nicaragua19
61Canada19
62Kazakhstan19
63Luxembourg19
64Greece19
65Ireland19
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank34
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
4Ireland4
5Denmark5
6UK6
7Canada6
8Australia6
9Finland9
10Netherlands10
11Luxembourg11
12Austria11
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
35
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
17Germany1024
18Costa Rica1208
19Namibia1250
20Canada1269
21Belgium1294
22Poland1311
23Slovakia1325
24Cyprus1383
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%36
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
9Tanzania12
10Thailand13
11Czech Rep.13
12Canada14
13New Zealand14
14Australia14
15Norway15
16Ghana15
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
37
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
4Canada3.75
5Australia5.25
6UK6.75
7Ireland6.75
8Sri Lanka8
9Qatar9
10Trinidad & Tobago10
11Netherlands10
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
38
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
4Canada1.32
5Japan1.33
6Austria1.33
7Ireland1.33
8Slovenia1.33
9Finland1.35
10Switzerland1.35
11Belgium1.38
12Qatar1.40
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
19Iceland1.89
20Norway1.70
21UK1.70
22Canada1.61
23Ireland1.52
24Estonia1.43
25Hungary1.37
26Italy1.29
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
39
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
4Venezuela7.5
5Sweden7.5
6Switzerland7.5
7Austria7.5
8Canada7.4
9Australia7.4
10Israel7.4
11Finland7.4
12Costa Rica7.3
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
19Ireland$43 798
20Austria$43 609
21Australia$42 822
22Canada$42 582
23Belgium$41 243
24Finland$38 868
25France$38 085
26UK$37 931
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
40
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
43Ireland67.1
44Romania67.0
45Netherlands66.4
46Canada66.4
47Maldives65.9
48Fiji65.9
49Philippines65.7
50Australia65.7
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score41
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
4Sweden255
5Spain245
6S. Africa241
7Denmark225
8Iceland220
9Norway210
10Andorra210
11Argentina200
12Brazil196
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better42
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
...
13UK100
14Austria100
15Finland99
16Canada99
17Poland99
18New Zealand99
19Belgium99
20Germany99
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 18
http://www.humantruth.info/canada.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #buddhism #canada #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #UK #universalism #USA

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good..

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Canada" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Gallup (2009) .^
  21. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  22. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  23. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  24. Ipsos (2011) .^
  25. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  26. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  27. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  29. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  30. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  31. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  32. UN (2013) World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  33. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  34. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  35. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  36. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  37. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  38. ^
  39. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  40. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  41. Higher is better. Sources:^
  42. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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