The Human Truth Foundation

Panama (Republic of Panama)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Panama
Republic of Panama
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPanama
Land Area 74 340km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, Central America
Population3.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy77.76yrs (2017)3
GNI$19 470 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesPA, PAN, 5915
Internet Domain.pa6
CurrencyBalboa (PAB)7
Telephone+5078

1. Overview

Explored and settled by the Spanish in the 16th century, Panama broke with Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela - named the Republic of Gran Colombia. When the latter dissolved in 1830, Panama remained part of Colombia. With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. In 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of the century. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the subsequent decades. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were transferred to Panama by the end of 1999. In October 2006, Panamanians approved an ambitious plan (estimated to cost $5.3 billion) to expand the Canal. The project, which began in 2007 and could double the Canal's capacity, is expected to be completed in 2015.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverFrom deserted islands and clear turquoise seas to the coffee farms and cloud forests of Chiriquí, Panama can be as chilled out or as thrilling as you wish. Consider Panama a place of discovery: explore the ruins of Spanish forts on the Caribbean coast or boat deep into indigenous territories in a dugout canoe. There are plenty of beaches to choose from, too, from relaxed Caribbean hang-outs to Pacific surf.

For an urban turn, Panama City – culturally diverse, driven, rough-edged yet sophisticated – is one of Latin America´s most vibrant and outward-looking capitals. The dazzling blue coastline and shimmering skyscrapers say Miami, though many joke that you hear more English spoken in Panama. Pedal the coastal green space, explore the historic Casco or attend an avant-garde performance and you will realize this tropical city isn´t just about salsa – that´s just the backbeat.

In the last century, Panama was defined by the canal; what lies just beyond may define it for the next. The canal expansion spells growth and even more glitz, but for now you can still pick an empty islet, live out your castaway fantasies and play Survivor for a day. Panama is as urbane or as wild as you want it to be.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Panama National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
58Bahamas58
59Malaysia59
60Palau60
61Panama60
62Antigua & Barbuda62
63Seychelles63
64Mauritius64
65Trinidad & Tobago65
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
69Mongolia56.9
70Trinidad & Tobago56.8
71Tajikistan56.2
72Panama56.0
73Philippines56.0
74Thailand55.9
75Nicaragua55.9
76Seychelles55.4
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
106Grenada16.2
107Brunei16.2
108El Salvador17.3
109Panama17.7
110Korea, N.17.8
111Turkey18.0
112Vietnam18.3
113Tunisia18.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
123Belgium4.2
124Syria4.2
125Burundi4.2
126Panama4.0
127Norway3.8
128Bahrain3.7
129Gambia3.7
130Chile3.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
59Venezuela2.41
60Ecuador2.41
61Mauritius1.59
62Panama2.42
63Peru2.43
64Barbados1.57
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
93S. Africa3.7
94Argentina3.6
95Venezuela3.5
96Panama3.4
97Chad3.4
98Swaziland3.4
99Mauritius3.3
100Sao Tome & Principe3.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
39Qatar78.32
40Albania77.97
41Dominica77.85
42Panama77.76
43Poland77.62
44Croatia77.50
45Uruguay77.35
46UAE77.12
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
126Liberia4.2m
127Congo, (Brazzaville)4.2m
128Bosnia & Herzegovina3.7m
129Panama3.6m
130Mauritania3.6m
131Moldova3.5m
132Uruguay3.4m
133Lithuania3.3m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Panama's population is predicted to rise to 4.502 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.42. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
76Mauritius44
77Poland45
78Indonesia48
79Panama52
80Senegal53
81Korea, S.53
82Iran56
83Armenia58
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
89Zambia37.8
90India37.6
91Sri Lanka37.6
92Panama37.4
93Morocco37.2
94Peru37.0
95Benin36.8
96Colombia36.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
58Mongolia1.88
59Oman1.89
60Malawi1.89
61Panama1.90
62Jordan1.90
63Indonesia1.91
64Serbia1.92
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
46Portugal20
47Poland20
48Korea, S.20
49Panama20
50New Zealand20
51Uganda19
52Colombia19
53Switzerland19
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
43Georgia43
44Croatia44
45Montenegro44
46Panama46
47Mongolia47
48Bahamas48
49Greece48
50Albania50
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
107Brazil3275
108Bolivia3280
109Qatar3286
110Panama3295
111Montenegro3297
112Israel3297
113UAE3349
114Nigeria3411
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
35Bolivia0.21
36Iceland0.21
37Oman0.21
38Panama0.21
39Sri Lanka0.21
40UK0.21
41Tunisia0.22
42Slovenia0.22
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
97Samoa0.44
98Bolivia0.45
99Suriname0.45
100Panama0.46
101Honduras0.46
102Venezuela0.46
103Nicaragua0.46
104Paraguay0.46
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
58Korea, N.1946
59Liberia1946
60Romania1946
61Panama1946
62Cameroon1946
63Macedonia1946
64Venezuela1946
65Guatemala1946
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Panama is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
65Ivory Coast88
66Guatemala88
67Zimbabwe88
68Panama88
69Bolivia89
70Syria89
71Tanzania89
72Kosovo90
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
83Peru1
84Guatemala1
85El Salvador1
86Panama1
87Somalia0
88Sri Lanka0
89Burundi0
90Burkina Faso0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below38:

Christian93%
Muslim0.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion0.4%
Jew0.4%
Unaffiliated4.8%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15%39.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
105Tonga47%
106Nigeria46%
107Jordan46%
108Panama45%
109Mexico45%
110Kenya45%
111Belize45%
112Ukraine44%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)41
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio41
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
73Vanuatu0.1
74Iran0.1
75Zambia0.1
76Panama0.1
77Croatia0.1
78Costa Rica0.1
79Serbia0.1
80Liechtenstein0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
140Cape Verde73.4
141Afghanistan74.0
142Sudan74.0
143Panama74.5
144Ecuador75.9
145Namibia76.8
146Senegal78.6
147Mauritania78.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)42
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita42
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
127Norway7.7
128Palau7.9
129Niue8.0
130Panama8.0
131Guyana8.1
132Peru8.1
133St Kitts & Nevis8.2
134Botswana8.4
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
51Israel51
52Slovakia52
53Bulgaria53
54Panama54
55Ukraine55
56S. Africa56
57Slovenia57
58Morocco58
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)44
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %44
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
137Cambodia86.5
138Namibia86.5
139Dominican Rep.86.3
140Panama86.1
141Belarus85.3
142Canada85.2
143Guatemala85.2
144Togo84.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
45Madagascar 206
46Burkina Faso 213
47Maldives 215
48Panama 224
49Grenada 224
50St Lucia 232
51Mali 236
52Dominican Rep. 245
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)46
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k46
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
30Uzbekistan9.3
31Brazil9.7
32Colombia9.9
33Panama10.9
34Nicaragua11.6
35Costa Rica12.1
36Italy12.8
37Macedonia13.5
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
49Somaliland42
50Syria43.67
51Luxembourg43.75
52Panama45
53Haiti45
54Malawi45.25
55Israel45.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
96Guinea96
97St Vincent & Grenadines97
98Zimbabwe98
99Panama99
100Laos100
101Cameroon101
102Peru102
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
114Qatar114
115Afghanistan115
116Ivory Coast116
117Panama117
118Colombia118
119Brazil119
120Honduras120
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
107Poland107
108Ukraine108
109Belgium109
110Panama110
111Equatorial Guinea111
112Botswana112
113Slovakia113
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
24Poland24
25S. Africa25
26Chile26
27Panama27
28Portugal28
29USA29
30Singapore30
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)43
Pos.Lower is better
Rank43
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
65Korea, S.65
66Benin66
67Lesotho67
68Panama68
69New Zealand69
70Tunisia70
71Montenegro71
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
91Azerbaijan0.21
92Burkina Faso0.20
93Vietnam0.19
94Panama0.18
95Mauritius0.18
96Oman0.17
97Kazakhstan0.17
98Bolivia0.16
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
10Israel7.4
11Finland7.4
12Costa Rica7.3
13Panama7.3
14UAE7.2
15New Zealand7.2
16Luxembourg7.1
17USA7.1
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
57Argentina$20 945
58Antigua & Barbuda$20 907
59Croatia$20 291
60Panama$19 470
61Romania$19 428
62Uruguay$19 148
63Gabon$19 044
64Turkey$18 705
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
53Brunei63.6
54Morocco63.5
55Cuba63.4
56Panama62.7
57Tonga62.5
58Tunisia62.4
59Azerbaijan62.3
60Korea, S.62.3
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
76Mauritius44
77Poland45
78Indonesia48
79Panama52
80Senegal53
81Korea, S.53
82Iran56
83Armenia58
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)50
Pos.Higher is better
Score50
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
75Latvia25
76Dominican Rep.25
77Seychelles25
78Panama25
79Vietnam25
80Nepal25
81Cuba25
82Paraguay20
q=196.
IQ (2006)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
80UAE84
81Iran84
82Pakistan84
83Panama84
84Paraguay84
85Morocco84
86Saudi Arabia84
87Algeria83
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/panama.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pm.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Panama".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Gallup (2009) .^
  37. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)51.^
  38. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  39. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  40. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  41. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  42. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  43. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  44. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  45. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  46. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  47. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  48. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  49. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  50. Sources:^
  51. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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