The Human Truth Foundation

Costa Rica (Republic of Costa Rica)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #costa_rica #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Costa Rica
Republic of Costa Rica
StatusIndependent State
CapitalSan Jose
Land Area 51 060km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, Central America
Population4.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy79.61yrs (2017)3
GNI$14 006 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCR, CRI, 1885
Internet Domain.cr6
CurrencyColon (CRC)7
Telephone+5068

1. Overview

#spain

Although explored by the Spanish early in the 16th century, initial attempts at colonizing Costa Rica proved unsuccessful due to a combination of factors, including disease from mosquito-infested swamps, brutal heat, resistance by natives, and pirate raids. It was not until 1563 that a permanent settlement of Cartago was established in the cooler, fertile central highlands. The area remained a colony for some two and a half centuries. In 1821, Costa Rica became one of several Central American provinces that jointly declared their independence from Spain. Two years later it joined the United Provinces of Central America, but this federation disintegrated in 1838, at which time Costa Rica proclaimed its sovereignty and independence. Since the late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred the country's democratic development. In 1949, Costa Rica dissolved its armed forces. Although it still maintains a large agricultural sector, Costa Rica has expanded its economy to include strong technology and tourism industries. The standard of living is relatively high. Land ownership is widespread.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverIn Costa Rica trails lead to rushing waterfalls, mist-covered volcanoes and deserted beaches. Regardless of which you choose, this tropical playland is a feast for the senses. Whether you´re following the shimmer of a blue butterfly from palm to palm, staring into the yawning mouth of a deep purple orchid or watching wisps of fog roll in to soften the jagged edge of mountains, Costa Rica´s vivid colors last a lifetime. The canopies rustle with riotous troupes of monkeys, hillsides echo with the squawks of macaws and you can reach up to the trees and pick your day´s lunch. It might seem at times like some kind of wondrous tropical fantasy land, but this is Costa Rica.

As the preeminent eco- and adventure-tourism capital of Central America, Costa Rica has earned a rightful place in the cubicle daydreams of travelers around the world. With a world-class infrastructure, visionary sustainability initiatives and no standing army, Costa Rica is a green, peaceful jewel. Considering more than a third of the country enjoys some form of environmental protection and there´s greater biodiversity than the USA and Europe combined, it´s a country that earns the superlative descriptions.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Costa Rica National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
63Seychelles63
64Mauritius64
65Trinidad & Tobago65
66Costa Rica66
67Serbia66
68Cuba68
69Iran69
70Georgia70
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
35Uruguay66.0
36Chile65.5
37Latvia65.2
38Costa Rica65.0
39Slovakia63.5
40Lithuania63.4
41Greece62.4
42Maldives62.2
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#Costa_Rica #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
123Lebanon21.1
124Trinidad & Tobago21.9
125Bahamas22.4
126Costa Rica22.6
127Israel22.9
128Sri Lanka23.7
129Moldova24.7
130China25.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
142Central African Rep.2.9
143Angola2.8
144France2.8
145Costa Rica2.7
146Rwanda2.6
147Pakistan2.5
148Vietnam2.5
149Niger2.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
28Argentina2.18
29El Salvador2.18
30Grenada2.18
31Costa Rica1.81
32Qatar2.20
33Morocco2.20
34Brazil1.80
35Guyana2.21
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
48Ivory Coast11.2
49Barbados10.9
50France10.7
51Costa Rica10.5
52Netherlands10.5
53Armenia10.5
54Libya10.4
55Greece10.1
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
30Denmark80.41
31Cyprus80.33
32Liechtenstein80.16
33Costa Rica79.61
34Cuba79.57
35Lebanon79.54
36USA79.22
37Brunei79.02
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
115Singapore5.3m
116Turkmenistan5.2m
117Norway5.0m
118Costa Rica4.8m
119Ireland4.6m
120Central African Rep.4.6m
121New Zealand4.5m
122Croatia4.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Costa Rica's population is predicted to rise to 5.694 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.81. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #Costa_Rica #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
50Kazakhstan32
51Bangladesh32
52Bosnia & Herzegovina32
53Costa Rica32
54Uruguay33
55Croatia33
56Botswana33
57Nicaragua34
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
43Lithuania57.4
44Malta56.6
45Grenada56.0
46Costa Rica54.8
47Korea, S.54.6
48Latvia54.0
49Mauritius54.0
50Rwanda52.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
33Uruguay1.63
34Vietnam1.64
35Croatia1.65
36Costa Rica1.66
37Laos1.66
38Italy1.69
39Bulgaria1.70
40France1.71
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
4Ecuador23
5Germany23
6Mexico23
7Peru23
8Spain23
9Slovenia23
10Paraguay23
11Serbia23
12Sweden23
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
35Korea, S.35
36Spain36
37Hungary37
38Costa Rica38
39Slovenia39
40Bulgaria40
41Singapore40
42Uruguay42
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
15Ireland1006
16Czechia1017
17Germany1024
18Costa Rica1208
19Namibia1250
20Canada1269
21Belgium1294
22Poland1311
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
4Australia0.06
5New Zealand0.06
6Chile0.08
7Mauritius0.10
8Uruguay0.10
9Costa Rica0.13
10USA0.13
11Argentina0.13
12Hong Kong0.14
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#Costa_Rica #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
60Barbados0.29
61Armenia0.29
62Cuba0.30
63Costa Rica0.31
64Maldives0.31
65Chile0.32
66Tajikistan0.32
67Trinidad & Tobago0.32
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
75Niger1948
76Suriname1948
77Seychelles1948
78Costa Rica1949
79Chile1949
80China1949
81Bosnia & Herzegovina1949
82Barbados1950
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Costa Rica has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
44Macedonia76
45Bosnia & Herzegovina77
46Venezuela79
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
49Georgia81
50Turkey82
51Ecuador82
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
74Nicaragua1
75Bolivia1
76Colombia1
77Costa Rica1
78Honduras1
79Brazil1
80Ecuador1
81S. Africa1
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below38:

Christian90.9%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated7.9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other Protestant 0.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%39.

The Catholic Church may be losing its grip [... - ] At present, Costa Rica is one of the few Western countries to have an official state religion. But a poll conducted by Unimer, for the newspaper La Nacion, showed that 47% of the Costa Rican population would rather live in a secular state - up from 41% two years ago. 30% of those questioned said they didn't mind if Costa Rica has an official religion or is secular, while 23% supported having the Catholic Church as an official religion (down from 27% in 2011).

NSS (2013)40

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)41, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Costa Rica states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However, the constitution establishes Catholicism as the state religion and requires that the state contribute to its maintenance. The constitution also prohibits the state from impeding the free exercise of other religions that do not impugn universal morality or proper behavior.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Religion is responsible for managing the government's relationship with the Catholic Church and other religious groups. The ministry includes funding in its annual budget for maintenance and repairs of some Catholic churches. The Catholic Church receives exemptions from income and real estate taxes. The law allows the government to provide land to the Catholic Church. Government-to-church land transfers typically are effected through periodic legislation. Public schools provide Catholic religious instruction. Students may obtain exemptions with the permission of their parents.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)42

Links:

7. The Internet

#Costa_Rica #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
85Seychelles58%
86Morocco58%
87Colombia57%
88Costa Rica56%
89Kazakhstan56%
90US Virgin Islands54%
91Serbia54%
92Maldives54%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)44
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio44
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
75Zambia0.1
76Panama0.1
77Croatia0.1
78Costa Rica0.1
79Serbia0.1
80Liechtenstein0.0
81Cyprus0.0
82Philippines0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Costa_Rica #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
117Uruguay56.1
118Costa Rica56.5
119Seychelles57.4
120Paraguay57.4
121Ethiopia58.4
122Palestine58.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)45
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita45
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
81Nicaragua5.0
82Cuba5.2
83Armenia5.3
84Costa Rica5.4
85Antigua & Barbuda5.4
86Philippines5.4
87Puerto Rico5.4
88Cambodia5.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
107Zimbabwe107
108Central African Rep.108
109Benin109
110Costa Rica110
111Dominica111
112Romania112
113Peru113
114Kenya114
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)47
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %47
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
125Sudan89.2
126Honduras88.8
127Kenya88.5
128Costa Rica88.5
129Colombia88.4
130Kiribati88.4
131Netherlands88.1
132Paraguay88.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
71Belize 400
72Swaziland 427
73Sudan 428
74Costa Rica 432
75Botswana 449
76Syria 459
77Djibouti 476
78Ivory Coast 477
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)49
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k49
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
32Colombia9.9
33Panama10.9
34Nicaragua11.6
35Costa Rica12.1
36Italy12.8
37Macedonia13.5
38Mauritius13.7
39UK13.9
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
41Northern Cyprus37
42Mongolia38
43Slovenia38.75
44Costa Rica38.75
45Liberia40.67
46Laos41
47Uganda41.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
73Timor-Leste (E. Timor)73
74Chile74
75Argentina75
76Costa Rica76
77Jamaica77
78Colombia78
79Liberia79
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
29Singapore29
30Spain30
31Romania31
32Costa Rica32
33Serbia33
34Korea, S.34
35New Zealand35
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
13Cameroon13
14Singapore14
15Colombia15
16Costa Rica16
17Hungary17
18Japan18
19Chile19
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
19New Zealand19
20Luxembourg20
21Ireland21
22Costa Rica22
23Thailand23
24Poland24
25S. Africa25
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
79Tonga79
80Latvia80
81Romania81
82Costa Rica82
83Kuwait83
84Belarus84
85Saudi Arabia85
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
59UAE0.49
60Uganda0.48
61Cyprus0.48
62Costa Rica0.47
63Qatar0.47
64Cuba0.47
65Macedonia0.44
66Puerto Rico0.44
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
9Australia7.4
10Israel7.4
11Finland7.4
12Costa Rica7.3
13Panama7.3
14UAE7.2
15New Zealand7.2
16Luxembourg7.1
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
77Libya$14 303
78Brazil$14 145
79Turkmenistan$14 026
80Costa Rica$14 006
81Palau$13 771
82Algeria$13 533
83China$13 345
84Lebanon$13 312
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
28Slovakia70.6
29Lithuania69.3
30Bulgaria67.9
31Costa Rica67.9
32Qatar67.8
33Czechia67.7
34Slovenia67.6
35Trinidad & Tobago67.4
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
50Kazakhstan32
51Bangladesh32
52Bosnia & Herzegovina32
53Costa Rica32
54Uruguay33
55Croatia33
56Botswana33
57Nicaragua34
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)53
Pos.Higher is better
Score53
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
59Fiji32
60Korea, S.30
61Timor-Leste (E. Timor)30
62Costa Rica30
63Suriname30
64Venezuela30
65Lithuania30
66Taiwan25
q=196.
IQ (2006)54
Pos.Higher is better54
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
56Croatia90
57Kyrgyzstan90
58Chile90
59Costa Rica89
60Laos89
61Ecuador88
62Mexico88
63Brazil87
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 18
http://www.humantruth.info/costa_rica.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #Costa_Rica #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #spain #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cs.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Costa Rica".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Gallup (2009) .^
  37. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)54.^
  38. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  39. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  40. National Secular Society article "Costa Ricans move towards secularism" (2013 Apr 04).^
  41. IHEU (2012) .^
  42. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  43. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  44. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  45. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  46. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  47. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  48. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  49. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  50. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  51. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  52. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  53. Sources:^
  54. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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