The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Bosnia & Herzegovina

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Bosnia & Herzegovina
[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalSarajevo
Land Area 51 000km21
LocationEurope, Mediterranean, The Balkans
Population3.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy76.63yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 091 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBA, BIH, 705
Internet Domain.ba6
CurrencyMarka (BAM)7
Telephone+3878

Bosnia & Herzegovina does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Bosnia & Herzegovina comes in the top 20 in its nominal commitment to Human Rights9. It does better than average in opposing gender inequality10, LGBT equality11, fighting anti-semitic opinions12, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms13, its Global Peace Index rating14, supporting press freedom15, eliminating modern slavery16 and in fighting corruption17. Things aren't perfect, and the country made little progress by 201718 on issues raised by the ECtHR in 2009, with constitutional discrimination continuing against Jews, Roma and other minorities18. There is too much intimidation of journalists18 and LGBT folk face hate speech, harassment and some needless inequalities19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

There was little visible progress on human rights during 2017. Authorities failed yet again to end structural and political discrimination against Jews, Roma, and other minorities. There was limited progress towards accountability for war crimes in domestic courts. Journalists remain vulnerable to intimidation and threats. ... More than 98,000 people remain displaced from their original homes, despite the fact that conflict ended more than 20 years ago.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

The constitution is fundamentally discriminatory against minorities such as Jews and Roma, and any others who are not Bosniaks, Serbs or Croats18. Only members of the latter three groups can be candidates for the national tripartite presidency and the House of Peoples18 and The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) ruled in 2009 and in 2016 that this violates the European Convention on Human Rights18. The best-practice in democracies and fair societies is to treat citizens equally without creating laws specific to any race, religion or ethnicity, and it is failure to observe this best-practice that has led to the Human Right violation as highlighted by the ECtHR.

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)12
Pos.Lower is better
%12
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
49Georgia32
50Kazakhstan32
51Bangladesh32
52Bosnia & Herzegovina32
53Costa Rica32
54Uruguay33
55Croatia33
56Botswana33
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)17
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score17
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
77Brazil41.2
78Serbia40.8
79Tunisia40.2
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
82Burkina Faso38.8
83China38.4
84El Salvador38.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)14
Pos.Lower is better14
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
62Jordan1.90
63Indonesia1.91
64Serbia1.92
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)9
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties9
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
21Guatemala21
22Mali21
23Azerbaijan21
24Bosnia & Herzegovina21
25Bolivia21
26Australia21
27France21
28Senegal21
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)13
Pos.Lower is better
Rank13
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
51Seychelles51
52Israel52
53Peru53
54Bosnia & Herzegovina54
55Armenia55
56Macedonia55
57Suriname55
58El Salvador58
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
64Central African Rep.2661
65Tonga2670
66Mauritania2676
67Bosnia & Herzegovina2686
68Guyana2708
69Tanzania2734
70Kenya2780
71Zambia2793
World Avg3249
q=178.

Journalists continue to work in an environment where threats and intimidation are common. The national journalists' association BH Novinari registered, in the first nine months of 2017, 45 cases involving assault on media freedom and expression, including nine physical attacks, seven death threats and six other threats, and two cases of defamation. The state response remains inadequate.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)20

Slavery (2018)16
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims16
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
65Yemen0.31
66Namibia0.33
67Serbia0.33
68Bosnia & Herzegovina0.34
69Botswana0.34
70Honduras0.34
71Poland0.34
72Singapore0.34
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory21. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends22. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life23. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves24.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery25. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity26. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.27. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi16, Eritrea16, Indonesia28) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery29.

2. Gender Equality

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)10
Pos.Lower is better10
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
32Belarus0.14
33Montenegro0.16
34New Zealand0.16
35Bosnia & Herzegovina0.16
36Macedonia0.16
37China0.16
38Libya0.17
39Slovakia0.18
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote30
Pos.Lower is better
Year30
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
78Costa Rica1949
79Chile1949
80China1949
81Bosnia & Herzegovina1949
82Barbados1950
83India1950
84Haiti1950
85Antigua & Barbuda1951
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Bosnia & Herzegovina is on the way towards ending gender inequality.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)11
Pos.Higher is better
Score11
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
49Montenegro35
50Guatemala35
51Japan35
52Bosnia & Herzegovina35
53Georgia35
54Nicaragua35
55El Salvador35
56Kosovo35
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence31. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws32. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries31. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people face hate speech and threats. [...] Between January and September 2017, Sarajevo Open Centre, an LGBT rights organization, documented 39 cases of hate speech, mostly on social networks and online portals, seven cases of discrimination, and 23 cases of hate crimes towards LGBT people [including] illegal imprisonment and forced conversion therapies by family members [...]. The reaction of police and public authorities to these incidents was generally inadequate.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

4. Bosnia & Herzegovina Overall National and Social Development

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
33
Pos.Higher is better
Points33
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
62Jamaica57.2
63Fiji57.2
64Macedonia57.0
65Bosnia & Herzegovina57.0
66Moldova57.0
67Brunei56.9
68Qatar56.9
69Mongolia56.9
70Trinidad & Tobago56.8
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Oct 07
http://www.humantruth.info/bosnia_and_herzegovina_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Bosnia & Herzegovina

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Oct 07.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  10. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  11. Sources:^^
  12. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  13. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  14. ^^
  15. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  16. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  17. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). P81.^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). P81,86.^^
  20. Human Rights Watch (2018). P85.^
  21. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  22. McCall (1979). P180.^
  23. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  24. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  25. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  28. Klein (2004) .^
  29. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  30. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  32. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^

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