The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Brazil

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#Brazil #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Brazil
Federative Republic of Brazil

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBrasilia
Land Area8 459 420km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population198.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.75yrs (2017)3
GNI$14 145 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBR, BRA, 765
Internet Domain.br6
CurrencyReal (BRL)7
Telephone+558

Brazil does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Brazil comes in the top 20 in LGBT equality9, fighting anti-semitic opinions10 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights11. It does better than average in eliminating modern slavery12 and in fighting corruption13. Brazil does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms14, its Global Peace Index rating15, opposing gender inequality16 and in supporting press freedom17. Some things are getting worse. Women are already poorly protected and abortion is far too heavily restricted and many women and girls must seek out illegal and unregulated abortion clinics - of the estimated 416,000 abortions in 2015, fewer than 1,700 were legal. In 2016 a congressional committee moved to make things worse by prohibiting abortion under any circumstances18. The police are involved in far too many unlawful killings and the mistreatment of detainees also seems to be getting worse, not better18.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #Brazil #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)10
Pos.Lower is better
%10
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
15Norway15
16Ghana15
17Finland15
18Brazil16
19Singapore16
20Nigeria16
21Iceland16
22Uganda16
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)13
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score13
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
74Greece41.8
75Senegal41.8
76Bulgaria41.4
77Brazil41.2
78Serbia40.8
79Tunisia40.2
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
80Nepal2.00
81Montenegro2.01
82Nicaragua2.01
83Brazil2.02
84Bolivia2.02
85Ecuador2.03
86Swaziland2.03
87Equatorial Guinea2.04
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)11
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties11
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
16Croatia22
17Belgium22
18Austria22
19Brazil21
20Montenegro21
21Guatemala21
22Mali21
23Azerbaijan21
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)14
Pos.Lower is better
Rank14
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
79Trinidad & Tobago79
80Bhutan79
81Benin79
82Brazil82
83Tajikistan83
84Nepal84
85Barbados85
86Rwanda85
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
104Peru3187
105Kyrgyzstan3220
106Fiji3269
107Brazil3275
108Bolivia3280
109Qatar3286
110Panama3295
111Montenegro3297
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)12
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims12
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
22Finland0.17
23Austria0.17
24Switzerland0.17
25Brazil0.18
26Jordan0.18
27Netherlands0.18
28Norway0.18
29Saudi Arabia0.19
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory19. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends20. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life21. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves22.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery23. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity24. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.25. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi12, Eritrea12, Indonesia26) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery27.

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor identified 885 cases of workers subjected to abusive conditions that under Brazilian law rise to the level of "slave-like," such as forced labor or degrading working conditions [and] from December 2014 to December 2016, it imposed penalties on 250 companies for employing people in "slave-like" conditions.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

Chronic problems plague Brazil's criminal justice system, including unlawful police killings and mistreatment of detainees. In Rio de Janeiro, killings by police are approaching record levels. In January 2017, more than 120 inmates were killed in gang-related violence. ... Police officers, including off-duty officers, killed 4,224 people in 2016, about 26 percent more than in 2015, according to the Brazilian Forum on Public Security. ... Human Rights Watch has documented scores of cases in the past decade where there was credible evidence of an extrajudicial execution or a cover-up that were not properly investigated or prosecuted. ... Domestic violence remained widespread; thousands of cases each year are not properly investigated. [...]

In January, more than 650,000 adults were behind bars in Brazil, according to the National Council of Justice. The latest official data about overcrowding, from 2014, showed facilities housing 67 percent more inmates than they were designed to hold. Overcrowding and understaffing make it impossible for prison authorities to maintain control within many prisons, leaving detainees vulnerable to violence. Health[, education] and legal services are deficient in many prisons.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

On a positive note, Brazil has formally helped thousands of Venezuelans as they flee from repression and has been calling "for the re-establishment of democracy in Venezuela", and in May 2016 passed a new migration law allowing non-citizens to access public services (including education and health) and the right to join union.18

When it comes to Freedom of Speech, a legal provision against "disrespecting" public officials has been continually abused, with soldiers using it against protesting civilians, and military police using it to quash criticism, including in online comments. The same restrictions are used against the police themselves if they complain, criticize current procedures or seek reform.18

2. Gender Equality

#Brazil #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)16
Pos.Lower is better16
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
89Colombia0.39
90S. Africa0.39
91Kyrgyzstan0.39
92Brazil0.41
93Jamaica0.42
94Algeria0.43
95Botswana0.44
96Philippines0.44
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote28
Pos.Lower is better
Year28
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
38Uruguay1932
39Thailand1932
40Turkey1934
41Brazil1934
42Cuba1934
43Myanmar (Burma)1935
44Philippines1937
45Uzbekistan1938
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Abortion is far too heavily restricted and many women and girls must seek out illegal and unregulated abortion clinics - and then legal fines if they are found out. Of the estimated 416,00 abortions in Brazil in 2015, only 1667 were legal. In 2016 November, things looked to get worse, as "a congressional committee approved a bill that would prohibit abortion under any circumstances"18.

Implementation of Brazil's anti-domestic violence legislation, the 2006 "Mariada Penha" law, is lagging. Specialized women's police stations have insufficient staff, are mostly closed during evenings and on weekends, and remain concentrated in major cities. Thousands of cases each year are never properly investigated, according to available data.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

Brazil has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Brazil #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)9
Pos.Higher is better
Score9
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
4Brazil81
5Spain79
6France78
7S. Africa78
8Uruguay77
9Norway72
10Denmark72
11Iceland72
12UK72
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence29. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws30. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries29. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Brazil Overall National and Social Development

#Brazil #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
31
Pos.Higher is better
Points31
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
54S. Africa59.0
55Bhutan58.6
56UAE58.5
57Brazil58.5
58Albania58.0
59Turkey57.5
60Mexico57.4
61Uzbekistan57.3
62Jamaica57.2
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Oct 16
http://www.humantruth.info/brazil_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Brazil (Federative Republic of Brazil)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #Brazil #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Oct 16.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Sources:^^
  10. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  11. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  12. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  13. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  14. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  15. ^^
  16. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  17. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). P87-97.^^^
  19. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  20. McCall (1979). P180.^
  21. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  22. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  23. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  24. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  26. Klein (2004) .^
  27. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  29. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  31. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^

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