The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Bolivia

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#Bolivia #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Bolivia
Republic of Bolivia

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalLa Paz (administrative/legislative) and Sucre (judical)
Land Area1 083 300km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population10.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy68.74yrs (2017)3
GNI$6 155 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBO, BOL, 685
Internet Domain.bo6
CurrencyBoliviano (BOB)7
Telephone+5918

Bolivia does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Bolivia comes in the top 20 in its nominal commitment to Human Rights9. It does better than average in LGBT equality10, eliminating modern slavery11, fighting anti-semitic opinions12 and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms13. Bolivia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its Global Peace Index rating14, opposing gender inequality15, fighting corruption16 and in supporting press freedom17. In 2008 almost a million children (as young as 10) were in work, and recent laws (in 2014) have encouraged this18. "President Evo Morales has created a hostile environment for human rights defenders"19 and "impunity for violent crime and human rights violations remains a serious problem in Bolivia"19. The justice system has serious problems with corruption and lack of process19. LGBT folk cannot marry nor engage in civil unions18. Women and girls face gender-based violence and unnecessary barriers to family planning services20.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #Bolivia #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Impunity for violent crime and human rights violations remains a serious problem in Bolivia [and] has led to mob attacks, or lynchings, of alleged criminals. [...] The administration of President Evo Morales has created a hostile environment for human rights defenders that undermines their ability to work independently. Despite recent legal reforms, extensive use of pretrial detention-combined with trial delays-undermine defendants' rights and contribute to prison overcrowding. Threats to judicial independence, violence against women, and child labor are other major concerns. [...] The Bolivian justice system [has] been plagued by corruption, delays, and political interference for years [and] around 68 percent of inmates in Bolivian prisons have not been convicted of a crime.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)12
Pos.Lower is better
%12
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
45Venezuela30
46Moldova30
47Russia30
48Bolivia30
49Georgia32
50Kazakhstan32
51Bangladesh32
52Bosnia & Herzegovina32
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)16
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score16
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
106Niger34.2
107Indonesia34.2
108Djibouti34.0
109Bolivia34.0
110Malawi33.8
111Kosovo33.8
112Moldova33.8
113Ethiopia33.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)14
Pos.Lower is better14
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
81Montenegro2.01
82Nicaragua2.01
83Brazil2.02
84Bolivia2.02
85Ecuador2.03
86Swaziland2.03
87Equatorial Guinea2.04
88USA2.06
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)9
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties9
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
22Mali21
23Azerbaijan21
24Bosnia & Herzegovina21
25Bolivia21
26Australia21
27France21
28Senegal21
29Hungary20
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)13
Pos.Lower is better
Rank13
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
68Guatemala68
69Moldova69
70Namibia69
71Bolivia71
72Indonesia72
73Turkey73
74S. Africa74
75Papua New Guinea74
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
105Kyrgyzstan3220
106Fiji3269
107Brazil3275
108Bolivia3280
109Qatar3286
110Panama3295
111Montenegro3297
112Israel3297
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)11
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims11
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
32Germany0.20
33Belgium0.20
34France0.20
35Bolivia0.21
36Iceland0.21
37Oman0.21
38Panama0.21
39Sri Lanka0.21
World Avg0.65
q=167.

In 2014, the Plurinational Assembly adopted legislation allowing children as young as 10 to work in activities that are not deemed "dangerous" or "unhealthy." The law contravenes international standards and makes Bolivia the first country in the world to legalize employment at such a young age. [...] The latest national census on child labor, from 2008, indicated that some 850,000 children under 17 were working in Bolivia.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory21. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends22. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life23. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves24.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery25. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity26. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.27. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi11, Eritrea11, Indonesia28) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery29.

2. Gender Equality

#Bolivia #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
95Botswana0.44
96Philippines0.44
97Samoa0.44
98Bolivia0.45
99Suriname0.45
100Panama0.46
101Honduras0.46
102Venezuela0.46
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote30
Pos.Lower is better
Year30
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
88Dominica1951
89St Kitts & Nevis1951
90St Vincent & Grenadines1951
91Bolivia1952
92Ivory Coast1952
93Greece1952
94Lebanon1952
95Guyana1953
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Women and girls in Bolivia remain at high risk of gender-based violence. [...] Women and girls face numerous obstacles to accessing reproductive health products, contraceptives, and services.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)20

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Bolivia and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Bolivia has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Bolivia #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)10
Pos.Higher is better
Score10
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
29Israel48
30Estonia45
31Honduras45
32Bolivia45
33Croatia45
34Slovenia45
35Germany44
36USA44
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence31. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries31. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

LGBT folk in Bolivia face legal inequality, and cannot marry nor engage in civil unions18.

4. Bolivia Overall National and Social Development

#Bolivia #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
32
Pos.Higher is better
Points32
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
89Ecuador54.1
90Oman53.7
91Morocco53.5
92Bolivia53.3
93Bahamas53.3
94Dominican Rep.52.7
95Sri Lanka52.5
96Russia52.4
97Azerbaijan52.0
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Sep 19
http://www.humantruth.info/bolivia_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Bolivia (Republic of Bolivia)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #Bolivia #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Sep 19.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  10. Sources:^^
  11. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  12. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  13. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  14. ^^
  15. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  16. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  17. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). P82.^^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). P77-79.^^
  20. Human Rights Watch (2018). P81.^^
  21. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  22. McCall (1979). P180.^
  23. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  24. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  25. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  28. Klein (2004) .^
  29. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  30. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^

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