The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights, Equality and Freedom in Angola

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#Angola #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Angola
Republic of Angola

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalLuanda
Land Area1 246 700km21
LocationAfrica
Population20.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy52.70yrs (2017)3
GNI$6 291 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesAO, AGO, 245
Internet Domain.ao6
CurrencyKwanza (AOA)7
Telephone+2448

Angola is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Angola does worse than average in its Global Peace Index rating9, eliminating modern slavery10, supporting press freedom11, its nominal commitment to Human Rights12 and in LGBT equality13. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms14 and in fighting corruption15. Diamond extraction in Angola relies upon forced labour and child labour, and has done for decades16. Angola's security forces continue to use excessive force with almost no action taken by the government against even serious abusers17.


1. Politics and Freedom

#Angola #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)15
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score15
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
159Chad20.4
160Burundi20.2
161Eritrea19.8
162Angola19.4
163Guinea-Bissau19.2
164Syria18.8
165Haiti18.8
166Yemen18.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)9
Pos.Lower is better9
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
92Guinea2.07
93Papua New Guinea2.08
94Trinidad & Tobago2.08
95Angola2.11
96Cameroon2.11
97Uganda2.12
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)12
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties12
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
140Central African Rep.12
141Bahrain12
142Israel12
143Angola12
144Suriname12
145Kuwait12
146Trinidad & Tobago12
147Lebanon12
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)14
Pos.Lower is better
Rank14
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
147Pakistan146
148Zimbabwe148
149Guinea149
150Angola150
151Congo, DR151
152Algeria152
153Myanmar (Burma)153
154Venezuela154
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)11
Pos.Lower is better11
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
126Honduras3692
127Afghanistan3736
128Colombia3748
129Angola3780
130Libya3786
131Burundi3802
132Zimbabwe3812
133Jordan3847
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)10
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims10
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
126Albania0.69
127Malaysia0.69
128Djibouti0.71
129Angola0.72
130Syria0.73
131Liberia0.74
132Guinea-Bissau0.75
133Madagascar0.75
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory18. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends19. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life20. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves21.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery22. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity23. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.24. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi10, Eritrea10, Indonesia25) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery26.

Angola's security forces continue "to use excessive force with impunity. Authorities repeatedly failed to investigate and prosecute officers who committed abuses"17.

Diamond extraction in Angola has over the past decades been linked to torture, murder, and forced displacement, and relies on both child labour and forced labour.

"Global Slavery Index" by Walk Free Foundation (2018)16

2. Gender Equality

#Angola #politics #women

Year Women Can Vote27
Pos.Lower is better
Year27
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
165Solomon Islands1974
166Sao Tome & Principe1975
167Cape Verde1975
168Angola1975
169Mozambique1975
170Portugal1976
171Guinea-Bissau1977
172Zimbabwe1978
World Avg1930
q=189.

The fact that the following events were even possible is a worrying sign for the state of Angola's moral and social development, however, there is still every chance that things are getting better:

Women´s reproductive rights were threatened after parliament approved an amendment to the abortion law on February 24, making all abortions illegal [after] Parliament rejected [proposals to make some exceptions for health and rape] and punishable by 4-10 years´ imprisonment. Parliament passed the first reading of the bill without any public consultations, and activists accused parliamentarians of ignoring their views. The final vote on the draft penal code, which had been scheduled for March 23, was cancelled and the bill was withdrawn pending further debate after women marched on the streets supporting the right to abortion. At time of writing, a new version of the abortion bill had not been submitted to parliament.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)17

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Angola #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
174Iraq-29
175Togo-29
176Comoros-30
177Angola-30
178Uzbekistan-30
179Tonga-30
180Tuvalu-30
181Mauritania-32
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence28. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries28. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Angola Overall National and Social Development

#Angola #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
29
Pos.Higher is better
Points29
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
190Equatorial Guinea34.3
191Afghanistan34.2
192Central African Rep.34.2
193Somalia32.9
194Congo, DR32.5
195Iraq32.2
196Chad31.3
197Yemen30.8
198Angola30.7
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

30

Current edition: 2018 Aug 16
http://www.humantruth.info/angola_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Angola (Republic of Angola)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#Angola #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

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References: (What's this?)

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. ^^
  10. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  11. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  12. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  13. Sources:^^
  14. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  15. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  16. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P60.^^
  17. Human Rights Watch (2018). P31.^^^
  18. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  19. McCall (1979). P180.^
  20. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  21. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  22. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  23. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  25. Klein (2004) .^
  26. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  27. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  28. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  30. Gallup (2009) .^

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